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What a USL D1 league might look like
TL;DR: Man with too much time on his hands goes deep down the rabbit hole on a concept this sub already didn’t seem that enthusiastic about. If you really want to skip ahead, CTRL+F “verdict” and it’ll get you there. submitted by Soccervox to USLPRO [link] [comments]
Two days ago, u/MrPhillyj2wns
made a post asking whether USL should launch a D1 league
in order to compete in Concacaf. From the top voted replies, it appears this made a lot of people very angry and has been widely regarded as a bad move.
But I’ve been at home for eight weeks and I am terribly, terribly bored.
So, I present to you this overview of what the USL pyramid might look like if Jake Edwards got a head of steam and attempted to establish a USSF-sanctioned first division. This is by no means an endorsement of such a proposal or even a suggestion that USL SHOULD do such a thing. It is merely an examination of whether they COULD.
Welcome to the
First, there are some base-level assumptions we must make in this exercise, because it makes me feel more scientific and not like a guy who wrote this on Sunday while watching the Belarusian Premier League (Go BATE Borisov!).
(Known) USSF D1 league requirements:
- All D1 teams must comply with known USSF requirements for D1 leagues (more on that later).
- MLS, not liking this move, will immediately remove all directly-owned affiliate clubs from the USL structure (this does not include hybrid ownerships, like San Antonio FC – NYCFC). This removes all MLS2 teams but will not affect Colorado Springs, Reno, RGVFC and San Antonio.
- The USL will attempt to maintain both the USL Championship and USL League One, with an eventual mind toward creating the pro/rel paradise that is promised in Relegations 3:16.
- All of my research regarding facility size and ownership net worth is correct – this is probably the biggest leap of faith we have to make, since googling “NAME net worth” and “CITY richest people” doesn’t seem guaranteed to return accurate results.
- The most a club can increase its available seating capacity to meet D1 requirements in a current stadium is no more than 1,500 seats (10% of the required 15,000). If they need to add more, they’ll need a new facility.
- Let’s pretend that people are VERY willing to sell. It’s commonly acknowledged that the USL is a more financially feasible route to owning a soccer club than in MLS (c.f. MLS-Charlotte’s reported $325 million expansion fee) and the USSF has some very strict requirements for D1 sanctioning. It becomes pretty apparent when googling a lot of team’s owners that this requirement isn’t met, so let’s assume everyone that can’t sells to people who meet the requirements.
- League must have 12 teams to apply and 14 teams by year three
- Majority owner must have a net worth of $40 million, and the ownership group must have a total net worth of $70 million. The value of an owned stadium is not considered when calculating this value.
- Must have teams located in the Eastern, Central and Pacific time zones
- 75% of league’s teams must be based in markets with at a metro population of at least 1 million people.
- All league stadiums must have a capacity of at least 15,000
The ideal club candidate for the USL Premiership will meet the population and capacity requirements in its current ground, which will have a grass playing surface. Of the USL Championship’s 27 independent/hybrid affiliate clubs, I did not find one club that meets all these criteria as they currently stand.
Regarding turf fields, the USSF does not have a formal policy regarding the ideal playing surface but it is generally acknowledged that grass is superior to turf. 6 of 26 MLS stadiums utilize turf, or roughly 23% of stadiums. We’ll hold a similar restriction for our top flight, so 2-3 of our top flight clubs can have turf fields. Seem fair?
Capacity is going to be the biggest issue, since the disparity between current requirements for the second-tier (5,000) and the first tier (15,000) is a pretty massive gap. Nice club you have there, triple your capacity and you’re onto something. As a result, I have taken the liberty of relocating certain (read: nearly all) clubs to new grounds, trying my utmost to keep those clubs in their current markets and –importantly--, ensure they play on grass surfaces.
So, let’s do a case-by-case evaluation and see if we can put together 12-14 teams that meet the potential requirements, because what else do you have to do?
For each club’s breakdown, anything that represents a chance from what is currently true will be underlined. Candidate: Birmingham Legion FC
Location (Metro population): Birmingham, Ala. (1,151,801)
Time zone: Central
Stadium (playing surface, capacity): Legion Field (FieldTurf, 71,594)
Potential owner: Stephens Family (reported net worth $4 billion)
Notes: Birmingham has a pretty strong candidacy. Having ditched the 5,000-seater BBVA Field for Legion Field, which sits 2.4 miles away, they’ve tapped into the city’s soccer history. Legion Field hosted portions of both the men’s and women’s tournaments at the 1996 Olympics, including a 3-1 U.S. loss to Argentina that saw 83,183 pack the house. The Harbert family seemed like strong ownership contenders, but since the death of matriarch Marguerite Harbert in 2015, it’s unclear where the wealth in the family is concentrated, so the Stephens seem like a better candidate. The only real knock that I can think of is that we really want to avoid having clubs play on turf, so I’d say they’re on the bubble of our platonic ideal USL Prem. Candidate: Charleston Battery
Location (Metro population): Charleston, S.C. (713,000)
Time zone: Eastern
Stadium (playing surface, capacity): Johnson Hagood Stadium (Grass, ~14,700)
Potential owner: Anita Zucker (reported net worth $3 billion)
Notes: Charleston’s candidacy isn’t looking great. Already disadvantaged due to its undersized metro population, a move across the Cooper River to Johnson Hagood Stadium is cutting it close in terms of capacity. The stadium, home to The Citadel’s football team, used to seat 21,000, before 9,300 seats on the eastern grandstand were torn down in 2017 to deal with lead paint that had been used in their construction. Renovation plans include adding 3,000 seats back in, which could hit 15,000 if they bumped it to 3,300, but throw in a required sale by HCFC, LLC (led by content-creation platform founder Rob Salvatore) to chemical magnate Anita Zucker, and you’ll see there’s a lot of ifs and ands in this proposal. Candidate: Charlotte Independence
Location (Metro population): Charlotte, N.C. (2,569, 213)
Time zone: Eastern
Stadium (playing surface, capacity): Jerry Richardson Stadium (Turf, 15,314)
Potential owner: James Goodnight (reported net worth $9.1 billion)
Notes: Charlotte ticks a lot of the boxes. A move from the Sportsplex at Matthews to UNC-Charlotte’s Jerry Richardson stadium meets capacity requirements, but puts them on to the dreaded turf. Regrettably, nearby American Legion Memorial Stadium only seats 10,500, despite a grass playing surface. With a sizeable metro population (sixth-largest in the USL Championship) and a possible owner in software billionaire James Goodnight, you’ve got some options here. The biggest problem likely lies in direct competition for market share against a much better-funded MLS Charlotte side due to join the league in 2021. Candidate: Hartford Athletic
Location (Metro population): Hartford, Conn. (1,214,295)
Time zone: Eastern
Stadium (playing surface, capacity): Pratt & Whitney Stadium (Grass, 38,066)
Potential owner: Ray Dalio (reported net worth $18.4 billion)
Notes: Okay, I cheated a bit here, having to relocate Hartford to Pratt & Whitney Stadium, which is technically in East Hartford, Conn. I don’t know enough about the area to know if there’s some kind of massive beef between the two cities, but the club has history there, having played seven games in 2019 while Dillon Stadium underwent renovations. If the group of local businessmen that currently own the club manage to attract Dalio to the table, we’re on to something. Candidate: Indy Eleven
Location (Metro population): Indianapolis, Ind. (2,048,703)
Time zone: Eastern
Stadium (playing surface, capacity): Lucas Oil Stadium (Turf, 62,421)
Potential owner: Jim Irsay (reported net worth of $3 billion)
Notes: Indy Eleven are a club that are SO CLOSE to being an ideal candidate – if it weren’t for Lucas Oil Stadium’s turf playing surface. Still, there’s a lot to like in this bid. I’m not going to lie, I have no idea what current owner and founder Ersal Ozdemir is worth, but it seems like there might be cause for concern
. A sale to Irsay, who also owns the NFL Indianapolis (nee Baltimore) Colts, seems likely to keep the franchise there, rather than make a half-mile move to 14,230 capacity Victory Field where the AAA Indianapolis Indians play and expand from there. Candidate: Louisville City FC
Location (Metro population): Louisville, Ky. (1,297,310)
Time zone: Eastern
Stadium (playing surface, capacity): Lynn Family Stadium (Grass, 14,000, possibly expandable to 20,000)
Potential owner: Wayne Hughes (reported net worth $2.8 billion)
Notes: I’m stretching things a bit here. Lynn Family stadium is currently listed as having 11,700 capacity that’s expandable to 14,000, but they’ve said that the ground could hold as many as 20,000 with additional construction, which might be enough to grant them a temporary waiver from USSF. If the stadium is a no-go, then there’s always Cardinal Stadium, home to the University of Louisville’s football team, which seats 65,000 but is turf. Either way, it seems like a sale to someone like Public Storage founder Wayne Hughes will be necessary to ensure the club has enough capital. Candidate: Memphis 901 FC
Location (Metro population): Memphis, Tenn. (1,348,260)
Time zone: Central
Stadium (playing surface, capacity): Liberty Bowl Stadium (Turf, 58,325)
Potential owner: Fred Smith (reported net worth $3 billion)
Notes: Unfortunately for Memphis, AutoZone Park’s 10,000 seats won’t cut it at the D1 level. With its urban location, it would likely prove tough to renovate, as well. Liberty Bowl Stadium more than meets the need, but will involve the use of the dreaded turf. As far as an owner goes, FedEx founder Fred Smith seems like a good local option. Candidate: Miami FC, “The”
Location (Metro population): Miami, Fla. (6,158,824)
Time zone: Eastern
Stadium (playing surface, capacity): Riccardo Silva Stadium (FieldTurf, 20,000)
Potential owner: Riccardo Silva (reported net worth $1 billion)
Notes: Well, well, well, Silva might get his wish for top-flight soccer, after all. He’s got the money, he’s got the metro, and his ground has the capacity. There is the nagging issue of the turf, though. Hard Rock Stadium might present a solution, including a capacity of 64,767 and a grass playing surface. It is worth noting, however, that this is the first profile where I didn’t have to find a new potential owner for a club. Candidate: North Carolina FC
Location (Metro population): Durham, N.C. (1,214,516 in The Triangle)
Time zone: Eastern
Stadium (playing surface, capacity): Carter-Finley Stadium (Grass/Turf, 57,583)
Potential owner: Steve Malik (precise net worth unknown) / Dennis Gillings (reported net worth of $1.7 billion)
Notes: We have our first “relocation” in North Carolina FC, who were forced to trade Cary’s 10,000-seat WakeMed Soccer Park for Carter-Finley Stadium in Durham, home of the NC State Wolfpack and 57,583 of their closest friends. The move is a whopping 3.1 miles, thanks to the close-knit hub that exists between Cary, Durham and Raleigh. Carter-Finley might be my favorite of the stadium moves in this exercise. The field is grass, but the sidelines are artificial turf. Weird, right? Either way, it was good enough for Juventus to play a friendly against Chivas de Guadalajara there in 2011. Maybe the move would be pushed for by new owner and medical magnate Dennis Gillings, whose British roots might inspire him to get involved in the Beautiful Game. Straight up, though, I couldn’t find a net worth for current owner Steve Malik, though he did sell his company MedFusion for $91 million in 2010, then bought it back for an undisclosed amount and sold it again for $43 million last November. I don’t know if Malik has the juice to meet D1 requirements, but I suspect he’s close. Candidate: Pittsburgh Riverhounds SC
Location (Metro population): Pittsburgh, Penn. (2,362,453)
Time zone: Eastern
Stadium (playing surface, capacity): Heinz Field (Grass, 64,450)
Potential owner: Henry Hillman (reported net worth $2.5 billion)
Notes: I don’t know a ton about the Riverhounds, but this move in particular feels like depriving a pretty blue-collar club from its roots. Highmark Stadium is a no-go from a seating perspective, but the Steelers’ home stadium at Heinz Field would more than meet the requirements and have a grass surface that was large enough to be sanctioned for a FIFA friendly between the U.S. WNT and Costa Rica in 2015. As for an owner, Tuffy Shallenberger (first ballot owner name HOF) doesn’t seem to fit the USSF bill, but legendary Pittsburgh industrialist Henry Hillman might. I’m sure you’re asking, why not the Rooney Family, if they’ll play at Heinz Field? I’ll tell you: I honestly can’t seem to pin down a value for the family. The Steelers are valued at a little over a billion and rumors persist that Dan Rooney is worth $500 million, but I’m not sure. I guess the Rooneys would work too, but it’s a definite departure from an owner in Shallenberger who was described by one journalist as a guy who “wears boots, jeans, a sweater and a trucker hat.” Candidate: Saint Louis FC
Location (Metro population): St. Louis, Mo. (2,807,338)
Time zone: Central
Stadium (playing surface, capacity): Busch Stadium (Grass, 45,494)
Potential owner: William DeWitt Jr. (reported net worth $4 billion)
Notes: Saint Louis has some weirdness in making the jump to D1. Current CEO Jim Kavanaugh is an owner of the MLS side that will begin play in 2022. The club’s current ground at West Community Stadium isn’t big enough, but perhaps a timely sale to Cardinals owner William DeWitt Jr. could see the club playing games at Busch Stadium, which has a well established history of hosting other sports like hockey, college football and soccer (most recently a U.S. WNT friendly against New Zealand in 2019). The competition with another MLS franchise wouldn’t be ideal, like Charlotte, but with a big enough population and cross marketing from the Cardinals, maybe there’s a winner here. Wacko idea:
If Busch doesn’t pan out, send them to The Dome. Sure, it’s a 60k turf closed-in stadium, but we can go for that retro NASL feel and pay homage to our nation’s soccer history. Candidate: Tampa Bay Rowdies
Location (Metro population): Tampa, Fla. (3,068,511)
Time zone: Eastern
Stadium (playing surface, capacity): Raymond James Stadium (Grass, 65,518)
Potential owner: Edward DeBartolo Jr. (reported net worth $3 billion)
Notes: This one makes me sad. Despite having never been there, I see Al Lang Stadium as an iconic part of the Rowdies experience. Current owner Bill Edwards proposed an expansion to 18,000 seats in 2016, but the move seems to have stalled out. Frustrated with the city’s lack of action, Edwards sells to one-time San Francisco 49ers owner Edward DeBartolo Jr., who uses his old NFL connections to secure a cushy lease at the home of the Buccaneers in Ray Jay, the site of a 3-1 thrashing of Antigua and Barbuda during the United States’ 2014 World Cup Qualifying campaign. Breather. Hey, we finished the Eastern Conference teams. Why are you still reading this? Why am I still writing it? Time is a meaningless construct in 2020 my friends, we are adrift in the void, fueled only by brief flashes of what once was and what may yet still be. Candidate: Austin Bold FC
Location (Metro population): Austin, Texas (2,168,316)
Time zone: Central
Stadium (playing surface, capacity): Darrel K Royal – Texas Memorial Stadium (FieldTurf, 95,594)
Potential owner: Michael Dell (reported net worth of $32.3 billion)
Notes: Anthony Precourt’s Austin FC has some unexpected competition and it comes in the form of tech magnate Michael Dell. Dell, were he to buy the club, would be one of the richest owners on our list and could flash his cash in the new first division. Would he have enough to convince Darrel K Royal – Texas Memorial Stadium (I’m not kidding, that’s its actual name) to go back to a grass surface, like it did from ’96-’08? That’s between Dell and nearly 100,000 UT football fans, but everything can be had for the right price. Candidate: Colorado Springs Switchbacks FC
Location (Metro population): Colorado Springs, Colo. (738,939)
Time zone: Mountain
Stadium (playing surface, capacity): Falcon Stadium (FieldTurf, 46,692)
Potential owner: Charles Ergen (reported net worth $10.8 billion)
Notes: Welcome to Colorado Springs. We have hurdles. For the first time in 12 candidates, we’re back below the desired 1 million metro population mark. Colorado Springs actually plans to build a $35 million, 8,000 seat venue downtown that will be perfect for soccer, but in our timeline that’s 7,000 seats short. Enter Falcon Stadium, home of the Air Force Academy Falcons football team. Seems perfect except for the turf, right? Well, the tricky thing is that Falcon Stadium is technically on an active military base and is (I believe) government property. Challenges to getting in and out of the ground aside, the military tends to have a pretty grim view of government property being used by for-profit enterprises. Maybe Charles Ergen, founder and chairman of Dish Network, would be able to grease the right wheels, but you can go ahead and throw this into the “doubtful” category. It’s a shame, too. 6,035 feet of elevation is one hell of a home-field advantage. Candidate: El Paso Locomotive FC
Location: El Paso, Texas
Time zone: Mountain
Stadium (playing surface, capacity): Sun Bowl (FieldTurf, 51,500)
Potential owner: Paul Foster (reported net worth $1.7 billion)
Notes: God bless Texas. When compiling this list, I found so many of the theoretical stadium replacements were nearly serviceable by high school football fields. That’s insane, right? Anyway, Locomotive don’t have to settle for one of those, they’ve got the Sun Bowl, which had its capacity reduced in 2001 to a paltry 51,500 (from 52,000) specifically to accommodate soccer. Sure, it’s a turf surface, but what does new owner Paul Foster (who is only the 1,477th wealthiest man in the world, per Forbes) care, he’s got a team in a top league. Side note:
Did you know that the Sun Bowl college football game is officially, through sponsorship, the Tony the Tiger Sun Bowl? Why is it not the Frosted Flakes Sun Bowl? Why is the cereal mascot the promotional name of the football game? What are you doing, Kellogg’s? Candidate: Las Vegas Lights FC
Location: Las Vegas, Nev. (2,227,053)
Time zone: Pacific
Stadium (playing surface, capacity): Allegiant Stadium (Grass, 61,000)
Potential owner: Sheldon Adelson (reported net worth $37.7 billion)
Notes: Sin City. You had to know that the club that once signed Freddy Adu because “why not” was going to go all out in our flashy hypothetical proposal. Thanks to my narrative control of this whole thing, they have. Adelson is the second-richest owner in the league and has decided to do everything first class. That includes using the new Raiders stadium in nearby unincorporated Paradise, Nevada, and spending boatloads on high profile transfers. Zlatan is coming back to the U.S., confirmed. Candidate: New Mexico United
Location: Albuquerque, N.M.
Time zone: Mountain
Stadium (playing surface, capacity): Isotopes Park – officially Rio Grande Credit Union Field at Isotopes Park (Grass, 13,500 – 15,000 with expansion)
Potential owner: Maloof Family (reported net worth $1 billion)
Notes: New Mexico from its inception went deep on the community vibe, and I’ve tried to replicate that in this bid. The home field of Rio Grande Cr---I’m not typing out the whole thing—Isotopes Park falls just within the expansion rules we set to make it to 15,000 (weird, right?) and they’ve found a great local ownership group in the Lebanese-American Maloof (formerly Maalouf) family from Las Vegas. The only thing to worry about would be the metro population, but overall, this could be one of the gems of USL Prem. Candidate: Oklahoma City Energy FC
Location: Oklahoma City, Okla. (1,396,445)
Time zone: Central
Stadium (playing surface, capacity): Chickasaw Bricktown Ballpark (Grass, 13,066)
Potential owner: Harold Hamm (reported net worth $14.2 billion)
Notes: There’s a bright golden haze on the meadow and it says it’s time to change stadiums and owners to make it to D1. A sale to oil magnate Harold Hamm would give the club the finances it needs, but Chickasaw Bricktown Ballpark (home of the OKC Dodgers) actually falls outside of the boundary of what would meet capacity if 1,500 seats were added. Could the club pull off a move to Gaylord Family Oklahoma Memorial Stadium in Norman, Oklahoma – home of the Oklahoma Sooners? Maybe, but at 20 miles, this would be a reach. Candidate: Orange County SC
Location: Irvine, Calif. (3,176, 000 in Orange County)
Time zone: Pacific
Stadium (playing surface, capacity): Angels Stadium of Anaheim (Grass, 43,250)
Potential owner: Arte Moreno (reported net worth $3.3 billion)
Notes: You’ll never convince me that Rangers didn’t choose to partner with Orange County based primarily on its name. Either way, a sale to MLB Angels owner Arte Moreno produces a fruitful partnership, with the owner choosing to play his newest club out of the existing Angels stadium in OC. Another baseball conversion, sure, but with a metro population of over 3 million and the closest thing this hypothetical league has to an LA market, who’s complaining? Candidate: Phoenix Rising FC
Location: Phoenix, Ariz. (4,857,962)
Time zone: Arizona
Stadium (playing surface, capacity): State Farm Stadium (Grass, 63,400)
Potential owner: Ernest Garcia II (reported net worth $5.7 billion)
Notes: We’re keeping it local with new owner and used car guru Ernest Garcia II. His dad owned a liquor store and he dropped out of college, which is making me feel amazing about my life choices right now. Casino Arizona Field is great, but State Farm Stadium is a grass surface that hosted the 2019 Gold Cup semifinal, so it’s a clear winner. Throw in Phoenix’s massive metro population and this one looks like a lock. Candidate: Reno 1868 FC
Location: Reno, Nev. (425,417)
Time zone: Pacific
Stadium (playing surface, capacity): Mackay Stadium (FieldTurf, 30,000)
Potential owner: Nancy Walton Laurie (reported net worth $7.1 billion)
Notes: The Biggest Little City on Earth has some serious barriers to overcome, thanks to its low metro population. A sale to Walmart heiress Nancy Walton Laurie and 1.6 mile-move to Mackay Stadium to split space with the University of Nevada, Reno makes this bid competitive, but the turf surface is another knock against it. Candidate: Rio Grande Valley FC
Location: Edinburg, Texas (900,304)
Time zone: Central
Stadium (playing surface, capacity): McAllen Memorial Stadium (FieldTurf, 13,500 – 15,000 with expansion)
Potential owner: Alice Louise Walton (reported net worth $45 billion)
Notes: Yes, I have a second straight Walmart heiress on the list. She was the first thing that popped up when I googled “McAllen Texas richest people.” The family rivalry has spurred Walton to buy a club as well, moving them 10 miles to McAllen Memorial Stadium which, as I alluded to earlier, is a straight up high school football stadium with a full color scoreboard. Toss in an additional 1,500 seats and you’ve met the minimum, despite the turf playing surface. Candidate: San Antonio FC
Location: San Antonio, Texas (2,550,960)
Time zone: Central
Stadium (playing surface, capacity): Alamodome (FieldTurf, 64,000)
Potential owner: Red McCombs (reported net worth $1.6 billion)
Notes: I wanted to keep SAFC in the Spurs family, since the franchise is valued at $1.8 billion. That said, I didn’t let the Rooneys own the Riverhounds based on the Steelers’ value and it felt wrong to change the rules, so bring on Clear Channel co-founder Red McCombs. Toyota Field isn’t viable in the first division, but for the Alamodome, which was built in 1993 in hopes of attracting an NFL franchise (and never did), San Antonio can finally claim having *a* national football league team in its town (contingent on your definition of football). Now if only we could do something about that turf… Candidate: San Diego Loyal SC
Location: San Diego, Calif. (3,317,749)
Time zone: Pacific
Stadium (playing surface, capacity): SDCCU Stadium (formerly Qualcomm) (Grass, 70,561)
Potential owner: Phil Mickelson (reported net worth $91 million)
Notes: Yes, golf’s Phil Mickelson. The existing ownership group didn’t seem to have the wherewithal to meet requirements, and Phil seemed to slot right in. As an athlete himself, he might be interesting in the new challenges of a top flight soccer team. Toss in a move to the former home of the chargers and you might have a basis for tremendous community support. Candidate: FC Tulsa
Location: Tulsa, Okla. (991,561)
Time zone: Central
Stadium (playing surface, capacity): Skelly Field at H.A. Chapman Stadium (FieldTurf, 30,000)
Potential owner: George Kaiser ($10 billion)
Notes: I’m a fan of FC Tulsa’s rebrand, but if they want to make the first division, more changes are necessary. A sale to Tulsa native and one of the 100 richest men in the world George Kaiser means that funding is guaranteed. A move to Chapman Stadium would provide the necessary seats, despite the turf field. While the undersize population might be an issue at first glance, it’s hard to imagine U.S. Soccer not granting a waiver over a less than a 10k miss from the mark.
And that’s it! You made it. Those are all of the independent/hybrid affiliates in the USL Championship, which means that it’s time for our…
VERDICT: As an expert who has studied this issue for almost an entire day now, I am prepared to pronounce which USL Championships could be most ‘ready” for a jump to the USL Prem. A reminder that of the 27 clubs surveyed, 0 of them met our ideal criteria (proper ownership $, metro population, 15,000+ stadium with grass field).
Two of them, however, met almost all of those criteria: Indy Eleven and Miami FC. Those two clubs may use up two of our three available turf fields right from the outset, but the other factors they hit (particularly Silva’s ownership of Miami) makes them difficult, if not impossible to ignore for the top flight.
But who fill in the rest of the slots? Meet the entire 14-team USL Premier League: Hartford Athletic Indy Eleven Louisville City FC Miami FC North Carolina FC Pittsburgh Riverhounds SC Tampa Bay Rowdies Saint Louis FC San Antonio FC New Mexico United Phoenix Rising FC Las Vegas Lights FC Orange County SC San Diego Loyal SC
Now, I shall provide my expert rationale for each club’s inclusion/exclusion, which can be roughly broken down into four categories. Firm “yes” Hartford Athletic:
It’s a good market size with a solid stadium. With a decent investor and good community support, you’ve got potential here. Indy Eleven
: The turf at Lucas Oil Stadium is no reason to turn down a 62,421 venue and a metro population of over 2 million. Louisville City FC:
Why doesn’t the 2017 & 2018 USL Cup champion deserve a crack at the top flight? They have the market size, and with a bit of expansion have the stadium at their own SSS. LCFC, you’re in. Miami FC, “The”:
Our other blue-chip recruit on the basis of ownership value, market size and stadium capacity. Yes, that field is turf, but how could you snub Silva’s chance to claim victory as the first division 1 club soccer team to play in Miami? Pittsburgh Riverhounds SC:
Pittsburgh sacrificed a lot to be here (according to my arbitrary calculations). Their market size and the potential boon of soccer at Heinz Field is an important inclusion to the league. Saint Louis FC:
Willie hears your “Busch League” jokes, Willie don’t care. A huge market size, combined with the absence of an NFL franchise creates opportunity. Competition with the MLS side, sure, but St. Louis has serious soccer history and we’re willing to bet it can support two clubs. Tampa Bay Rowdies:
With a huge population and a massive stadium waiting nearby, Tampa Bay seems like too good of an opportunity to pass up for the USL Prem. Las Vegas Lights FC:
Ostentatious, massive and well-financed, Las Vegas Lights FC is everything that the USL Premier League would need to assert that it didn’t intend to play second fiddle to MLS. Players will need to be kept on a short leash, but this is a hard market to pass up on. Phoenix Rising FC:
Huge population, big grass field available nearby and a solid history of success in recent years. No brainer. San Diego Loyal SC:
New club? Yes, massive population in a market that recently lost an absolutely huge sports presence? Also yes. This could be the USL Prem’s Seattle. Cautious “yes” New Mexico United:
You have to take a chance on New Mexico United. The club set the league on fire with its social media presence and its weight in the community when it entered the league last season. The market may be slightly under USSF’s desired 1 million, but fervent support (and the ability to continue to use Isotopes Park) shouldn’t be discounted. North Carolina FC
: Carter-Finley’s mixed grass/turf surface is a barrier, to be sure, but the 57,000+ seats it offers (and being enough to offset other fully-turf offerings) is enough to put it in the black. Orange County SC:
It’s a top-tier club playing in a MLB stadium. I know it seems unlikely that USSF would approve something like that
, but believe me when I say “it could happen.”
Orange County is a massive market and California likely needs two clubs in the top flight. San Antonio FC:
Our third and only voluntary inclusion to the turf fields in the first division, we’re counting on San Antonio’s size and massive potential stadium to see it through. Cautious “no” Birmingham Legion FC:
The town has solid soccer history and a huge potential venue, but the turf playing surface puts it on the outside looking in. Memphis 901 FC:
Like Birmingham, not much to dislike here outside of the turf playing surface at the larger playing venue. Austin Bold FC:
See the other two above. FC Tulsa:
Everything’s just a little bit off with this one. Market’s slightly too small, stadium has turf. Just not enough to put it over the top. Firm “no” Charleston Battery:
Small metro and a small potential new stadium? It’s tough to say yes to the risk. Charlotte Independence:
A small new stadium and the possibility of having to compete with an organization that just paid over $300 million to join MLS means it’s best for this club to remain in the USL Championship. Colorado Springs Switchbacks FC:
When a club’s best chance to meet a capacity requirement is to host games at a venue controlled by the military, that doesn’t speak well to a club’s chances. El Paso Locomotive FC:
An undersized market and a turf field that meets capacity requirements is the death knell for this one. Oklahoma City Energy FC:
Having to expand a baseball field to meet requirements is a bad start. Having to potentially play 20 miles away from your main market is even worse. Reno 1868 FC:
Population nearly a half-million short of the federation’s requirements AND a turf field at the hypothetical new stadium makes impossible to say yes to this bid. Rio Grande Valley FC:
All the seat expansions in the world can’t hide the fact that McAllen Memorial Stadium is a high school stadium through and through.
Here’s who’s left in the 11-team Championship: Birmingham Legion FC Charleston Battery Charlotte Independence Memphis 901 FC Austin Bold FC Colorado Springs Switchbacks FC El Paso Locomotive FC Oklahoma City Energy FC Reno 1868 FC Rio Grande Valley FC FC Tulsa
With MLS folding the six affiliates it has in USL League One, the league is a little bit thin (especially considering USSF’s requirements for 8 teams for lower level leagues), but seems definitely able to expand up to the necessary numbers with Edwards’ allusions to five new additions this year: Chattanooga Red Wolves SC Forward Madison FC Greenville Triumph SC Union Omaha Richmond Kickers South Georgia Tormenta FC Tucson Format of Assorted Leagues –
This (like everything in this post) is pure conjecture on my part, but here are my thoughts on how these leagues might function in a first year while waiting for additional expansion. USL Premier –
We’ll steal from the 12-team Scottish Premiership. Each club plays the other 11 clubs 3 times, with either one or two home matches against each side. When each club has played 33 matches, the top six and bottom six separate, with every club playing an additional five matches (against each other team in its group). The top club wins the league. The bottom club is automatically relegated. The second-bottom club will enter a two-legged playoff against someone (see below) from the championship playoffs. USL Championship --
11 clubs is a challenge to schedule for. How about every club plays everyone else three times (either one or two home matches against each side)? Top four clubs make the playoffs, which are decided by two-legged playoffs. The winner automatically goes up. I need feedback on the second part – is it better to have the runner-up from the playoffs face the second-bottom club from the Premiership, or should the winner of the third-place match-up get the chance to face them to keep drama going in both playoff series? As for relegation, we can clearly only send down the last place club while the third division is so small. USL League One –
While the league is so small, it doesn’t seem reasonable to have the clubs play as many matches as the higher divisions. Each club could play the other six clubs four times – twice at home and twice away – for a very equitable 24-match regular season, which would help restrict costs and still provide a chance to determine a clear winner. Whoever finishes top of the table goes up.
And there you have it, a hypothetical look at how the USL could build a D1 league right now. All it would take is a new stadium for almost the entire league and new owners for all but one of the 27 clubs, who wouldn’t feel that their property would be massively devalued if they got relegated.
Well that’s our show. I’m curious to see what you think of all of this, especially anything that you think I may have overlooked (I’m sure there’s plenty). Anyway, I hope you’re all staying safe and well.
The Furry Fandom Wikipedia page
Furry fandom submitted by Tartra_813_Kolos to copypasta [link] [comments]
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The furry fandom is a subculture interested in anthropomorphic animal characters with human personalities and characteristics. Examples of anthropomorphic attributes include exhibiting human intelligence and facial expressions, speaking, walking on two legs, and wearing clothes. The term "furry fandom" is also used to refer to the community of people who gather on the internet and at furry conventions.
The furry fandom has its roots in the underground comix movement of the 1970s, a genre of comic books that depicts explicit content. In 1976, a pair of cartoonists created the amateur press association Vootie, which was dedicated to animal-focused art. Many of its featured works contained adult themes, such as Omaha the Cat Dancer, which contained explicit sex. Vootie grew a small following over the next several years, and its contributors began meeting at science fiction and comics conventions.
According to fandom historian Fred Patten, the concept of furry originated at a science fiction convention in 1980, when a character drawing from Steve Gallacci's Albedo Anthropomorphics started a discussion of anthropomorphic characters in science fiction novels. This led to the formation of a discussion group that met at science fiction conventions and comics conventions.
The specific term furry fandom was being used in fanzines as early as 1983, and had become the standard name for the genre by the mid-1990s, when it was defined as "the organized appreciation and dissemination of art and prose regarding 'Furries', or fictional mammalian anthropomorphic characters". However, fans consider the origins of furry fandom to be much earlier, with fictional works such as Kimba, The White Lion released in 1965, Richard Adams' novel Watership Down, published in 1972 (and its 1978 film adaptation), as well as Disney's Robin Hood as oft-cited examples. Internet newsgroup discussion in the 1990s created some separation between fans of "funny animal" characters and furry characters, meant to avoid the baggage that was associated with the term "furry".
During the 1980s, furry fans began to publish fanzines, developing a diverse social group that eventually began to schedule social gatherings. By 1989, there was sufficient interest to stage the first furry convention. It was called Confurence 0, and was held at the Holiday Inn Bristol Plaza in Costa Mesa, California. The next decade, the internet became accessible to the general population and became the most popular means for furry fans to socialize. The newsgroup alt.fan.furry was created in November 1990, and virtual environments such as MUCKs also became popular places on the internet for fans to meet and communicate.
The furry fandom is male-dominated, with surveys reporting around 80% male respondents.
Allegorical novels, including works of both science fiction and fantasy, and cartoons featuring anthropomorphic animals are often cited as the earliest inspiration for the fandom. A survey conducted in 2007 suggested that, when compared with a non-furry control group, a higher proportion of those self-identifying as furries liked cartoons "a great deal" as children and recalled watching them significantly more often, as well as being more likely to enjoy works of science fiction than those outside of the community.
According to a survey from 2008, most furries believe that visual art, conventions, literature, and online communities are strongly important to the fandom.
Sculpture at Further Confusion
Fans with craft skills create their own plush toys, sometimes referred to as plushies, and also build elaborate costumes called fursuits, which are worn for fun or to participate in parades, convention masquerades, dances, or fund-raising charity events (as entertainers). Fursuits range from designs featuring simple construction and resembling sports mascots to those with more sophisticated features that include moving jaw mechanisms, animatronic parts, prosthetic makeup, and other features. Fursuits range in price from $500, for mascot-like designs, to an upwards of $10,000 for models incorporating animatronics. While about 80% of furries do not own a full fursuit, often citing their expensive cost as the decisive factor, a majority of them hold positive feelings towards fursuiters and the conventions in which they participate. Some fans may also wear "partial" suits consisting simply of ears and a tail, or a head, paws, and a tail.
Furry fans also pursue puppetry, recording videos and performing live shows such as Rapid T. Rabbit and Friends and the Funday PawPet Show, and create furry accessories, such as ears or tails.
"Fursonas" redirects here. For the 2016 documentary film, see Fursonas (film).
Anthropomorphic animal characters created by furry fans, known as fursonas. are used for role-playing in MUDs, on internet forums, or on electronic mailing lists. A variety of species are employed as the basis of these personas, although many furry fans (for example over 60% of those surveyed in 2007) choose to identify themselves with carnivorans. The longest-running online furry role-playing environment is FurryMUCK, which was established in 1990. Many furry fans had their first exposure to the fandom come from multiplayer online role-playing games. Another popular online furry social game is called Furcadia, created by Dragon's Eye Productions. There are also several furry-themed areas and communities in the virtual world Second Life.
Sufficient interest and membership has enabled the creation of many furry conventions in North America and Europe. A furry convention is for the fans get together to buy and sell artwork, participate in workshops, wear costumes, and socialize. The world's largest furry convention, Anthrocon with more than 5,861 participants, held annually in Pittsburgh in June, was estimated to have generated approximately $3 million to Pittsburgh's economy in 2008. Another convention, Further Confusion, held in San Jose each January, closely follows Anthrocon in scale and attendance. US$470,000 was raised in conventions for charity from 2000–9. The first known furry convention, ConFurence, is no longer held; Califur has replaced it, as both conventions were based in Southern California. A University of California, Davis survey suggested that about 40% of furries had attended at least one furry convention.
Websites and online communities
The internet contains a multitude of furry websites and online communities, such as art community websites Fur Affinity, Inkbunny, SoFurry and Weasyl; social networking sites Furry 4 Life, FurNation; and WikiFur, a collaborative furry wiki. These, with the IRC networks FurNet and Anthrochat, form a key part of furry fandom. Usenet newsgroups such as alt.fan.furry and alt.lifestyle.furry, popular from the mid-1990s to 2005, have been replaced by topic-specific forums, mailing lists and LiveJournal communities.
There are several webcomics featuring animal characters created by or for furry fans; as such, they may be referred to as furry comics. One such comic, T.H.E. Fox, was first published on CompuServe in 1986, predating the World Wide Web by several years, while another, Kevin and Kell by Bill Holbrook, has been awarded both a Web Cartoonists' Choice Award and an Ursa Major Award.
See also: Therianthropy and Otherkin
The phrases furry lifestyle and furry lifestyler first appeared in July 1996 on the newsgroup alt.fan.furry during an ongoing dispute within that online community. The Usenet newsgroup alt.lifestyle.furry was created to accommodate discussion beyond furry art and literature, and to resolve disputes concerning what should or should not be associated with the fandom; its members quickly adopted the term furry lifestylers, and still consider the fandom and the lifestyle to be separate social entities. They have defined and adopted an alternative meaning of the word furry specific to this group: "a person with an important emotional/spiritual connection with an animal or animals, real, fictional, or symbolic."
In their 2007 survey, Gerbasi et al. examined what it meant to be a furry, and proposed a taxonomy in which to categorise different "types" of furries. The largest group—38% of those surveyed—described their interest in furry fandom predominantly as a "route to socializing with others who share common interests such as anthropomorphic art and costumes." However they also identified furries who saw themselves as "other than human", or who desired to become more like the furry species which they identified with.
When compared with the general population, homosexuality and bisexuality are over-represented in the furry fandom by about a factor of 10. Of the US population, about 1.8% of persons self-identify as bisexual and 1.7% as homosexual according to a 2011 study from scholars at UCLA. In contrast, according to four different surveys 14–25% of the fandom members report homosexuality, 37–52% bisexuality, 28–51% heterosexuality, and 3–8% other forms of alternative sexual relationships. Approximately half of the respondents reported being in a relationship, of which 76% were in a relationship with another member of furry fandom. Examples of sexual aspects within furry fandom include erotic art and furry-themed cybersex. The term "yiff" is sometimes used to indicate sexual activity or sexual material within the fandom—this applies to sexual activity and interaction within the subculture whether in the form of cybersex or offline.
Sexual attraction to furry characters is a polarizing issue. In one survey with 4,300 furry respondents, 37% answered that sexual attraction is important in their furry activities, 38% were ambivalent, and 24% answered that it has little or nothing to do with their furry activities. In a different online survey, 33% of furry respondents answered that they have a "significant sexual interest in furry", another 46% stated they have a "minor sexual interest in furry", and the remaining 21% stated they have a "non-sexual interest in furry". The survey specifically avoided adult-oriented websites to prevent bias. Another survey found that 96.3% of male furry respondents reported viewing furry pornography, compared with 78.3% of female; males estimated 50.9% of all furry art they view is pornographic, compared with 30.7% female. Furries have a slight preference for pornographic furry artwork over non-pornographic artwork. 17.1% of males reported that when they viewed pornography it is exclusively or near-exclusively furry pornography, and only about 5% reported that pornography was the top factor which got them into the fandom.
A small proportion of the fandom is sexually interested in zoophilia (sex with animals), although a majority take a negative stance towards it. An anonymous survey in 2008 found 17% of respondents reported zoophilia. An earlier survey, conducted from 1997 to 1998, reported about 2% of furry respondents stating an interest in zoophilia, and less than 1% an interest in plushophilia (sexually aroused by stuffed animal toys). The older, lower results, which are even lower than estimated in the general population, were due to the methodology of questioning respondents face-to-face, which led to social desirability bias. In contrast, one comparative study from 1974 and 1980 showed 7.5% of sampled students at University of Northern Iowa reporting zoophilia, while other studies find only 2.2% to 5.3% expressing fantasies of sex with animals.
Public perception and media coverage
Early portrayal of the furries in magazines such as Wired, Loaded, Vanity Fair, and the syndicated sex column "Savage Love" focused mainly on the sexual aspect of furry fandom. Fictional portrayals of furry fandom have appeared on television shows such as ER, CSI: Crime Scene Investigation, The Drew Carey Show, Sex2K on MTV, Entourage, 1000 Ways to Die, Tosh.0, and 30 Rock. Most furry fans claim that these media portrayals are misconceptions, while the recent coverage focuses on debunking myths and stereotypes that have come to be associated with the furry fandom. A reporter attending Anthrocon 2006 noted that "despite their wild image from Vanity Fair, MTV and CSI, furry conventions aren't about kinky sex between weirdos gussied up in foxy costumes", that conference attendees were "not having sex more than the rest of us", and that the furry convention was about "people talking and drawing animals and comic-book characters in sketchbooks." In October 2007, a Hartford Advocate reporter attended FurFright 2007 undercover because of media restrictions. She learned that the restrictions were intended to prevent misinformation, and reported that the scandalous behavior she had expected was not evident. Recent coverage of the furry fandom has been more balanced. According to Ian Wolf, a 2009 article from the BBC entitled "Who are the furries?" was the first piece of journalism to be nominated for an Ursa Major Award, the main awards given in the field of anthropomorphism.
Milwaukee Brewers broadcaster Jim Powell was sharing a hotel with Anthrocon 2007 attendees a day before the convention and reported a negative opinion of the furries. Several downtown Pittsburgh businesses welcome furries during the event, with local business owners creating special T-shirts and drawing paw prints in chalk outside their shops to attract attendees. Dr. Samuel Conway, CEO of Anthrocon, said that "For the most part, people give us curious stares, but they're good-natured curious stares. We're here to have fun, people have fun having us here, everybody wins". Positive coverage was generated following a furry convention that was held in a Vancouver hotel where a number of Syrian refugees were being temporarily housed. Despite some concerns and warnings by staff that there could be a seriously negative culture clash if the two groups interacted, the refugee children were on the whole delighted to meet the convention goers who seemed like cartoon characters come to life.
According to Furry survey, about half of furries perceive public reaction to the fandom as negative; less than a fifth stated that the public responded to them more negatively than they did most furries. Furry fans' belief that they will be portrayed as "mainly obsessed with sex" has led to mistrust of the media and social researchers.
In addition, the fandom has grown to be such a significant demographic that by 2016, the film company, Walt Disney Studios marketed their animated feature film, Zootopia in pre-release to the fandom to encourage interest in the film. The result of such efforts was that the film proved a major critical and commercial success with over $1 billion in revenue worldwide and numerous film awards including the Academy Award for Best Animated Feature.
The International Anthropomorphic Research Project (IARP), a team of social scientists from various disciplines led by Plante, Reysen, Roberts, and Gerbasi, has been collecting data on the furry fandom using numerous methodologies. Their 2016 publication collects several peer-reviewed and self-published studies into a single volume. Among their findings were that the average adult furry is between 23–27 years of age, with more than 75% of adult furries reporting being 25 years of age or younger, and 88% of adult furries being under the age of 30. Minors were not included in the study for professional ethics reasons. 4–7 78–85% of furries identify as male, nearly 2% of furries identify as transgender, the remaining identify as female.10 83–90% of furries self-identify as White, with small minorities of furries self-identifying as Asian (2–4%), Black (2–3%), and Hispanic (3%):7–10 21% of furries consider themselves to be a brony, 44% consider themselves to be anime fans, and 11% consider themselves sport fans. Furries, as a group, are more politically liberal and less religious than the average American or other comparable fan groups such as anime fans, while still containing contentious groups such as neo-Nazis and alt-right activists whose affiliation is partly in jest and partly in earnest. Religion: 54% of furries self-identified as atheist or agnostic, 23% as Christian, 4% as Pagan, 2% as Wiccan, and the remainder identified with other religions.Approximately 70% of adult furries have either completed, or are currently completing post-secondary education.
One of the most universal behaviors in the furry fandom is the creation of a fursona – an anthropomorphic animal representation or avatar. More than 95% of furries have a fursona – an anthropomorphic avatar or representation of themselves. Nearly half of furries report that they have only ever had one fursona to represent themselves; relatively few furries have had more than three or four fursonas; in part, this is due to the fact that, for many furries, their fursonas are a personally significant, meaningful representation of their ideal self. The most popular fursona species include wolves, foxes, dogs, large felines, and dragons. Data suggest that there are generally no associations between personality traits and different fursona species.However, furries, along with sport fans, report different degrees of personality traits when thinking of themselves in their everyday identity compared with their fan identity. Some furries identify as partly non-human: 35% say they do not feel 100% human (compared with 7% of non-furries), and 39% say they would be 0% human if they could (compared with 10% of non-furries).
Inclusion and belongingness are central themes in the furry fandom: compared with members of other fandoms such as anime or fantasy sport, furries are significantly more likely to identify with other members of their fan community. On average, half of a furry's friends are also furry themselves. Furries rate themselves higher (compared with a comparison community sample of non-furries) on degree of global awareness (knowledge of the world and felt connection to others in the world), global citizenship identification (psychological connection with global citizens), and environmental sustainability.
Longest Active Minor League Affiliations
submitted by aotex to baseball [link] [comments]
A brief snapshot of each team's longest standing minor league affiliation, from youngest to oldest:
Milwaukee Brewers - Wisconsin Timber Rattlers (Appleton, WI - A -Midwest League) - 11 seasons
A partnership between two Wisconsin teams seems like a no-brainer, but this is the "youngest" oldest affiliation in Major League Baseball. The Timber Rattlers trace their history back to the Appleton Papermakers of 1909, and the franchise has played affiliated baseball since 1942. Nevertheless, they have had partnerships with nine different teams (including the likes of the St. Louis Browns, Boston Braves, and Washington Senators) before signing on with the Brewers in 2009.
Arizona Diamondbacks - Visalia Rawhide (Visalia, CA, A-Advanced - California League) - 13 seasons
The Visalia Oaks began a relationship with Diamondbacks in 2007; two years later they were rechristened the Rawhide. Baseball in Visalia dates to 1946, and the franchise has played in the same stadium (Recreation Park) through nine names and nine different parent clubs.
Texas Rangers - Frisco RoughRiders (Frisco, TX - AA - Texas League) / Spokane Indians (Spokane, WA - Short Season A - Northwestern League) - 17 seasons
The Rangers brought their AA presence close to home when they partnered with the newly established Frisco RoughRiders in 2003. While Frisco was a totally new venture, Spokane has baseball roots going back to 1892. They also began a partnership with the Rangers in 2003, their second tenure with the parent club (they were also aligned with Texas from 1973-1975).
Los Angeles Dodgers - Ogden Raptors (Ogden, UT - Rookie - Pioneer League) - 17 seasons
Los Angeles and Ogden have been affiliated since 2003. The Raptors originated as the Calgary Cardinals in 1977, also playing in Salt Lake City and Pocatello, Idaho before settling in Ogden in 1994. This team is currently marked as a contraction candidate.
Miami Marlins - Jupiter Hammerheads (Jupiter, FL - A-Advanced - Florida State League) - 18 seasons
The Marlins and the Hammerheads began their partnership in 2002. The Hammerheads were originally a long-time affiliate of the Montreal Expos, and were known as the West Palm Beach Expos from 1969 to 1997.
Houston Astros - Tri-City ValleyCats (Troy, NY - Short Season A - New York-Penn League) - 18 seasons
The Astros and ValleyCats have been affiliated since 2002, the first year of the the ValleyCats' existence. The team had previously based in Pittsfield, Massachusetts as the Pittsfield Astros (and before that, the Pittsfield Mets).
Los Angeles Angels - Salt Lake Bees (Salt Lake City, UT - AAA - Pacific Coast League) - 19 seasons
The Angels began an affiliation with the Salt Lake Stingers in 2001. The Stingers became the Bees in 2005, renewing the name used by Utah's first professional baseball team starting in 1915. The current Bees began play in 1994.
San Diego Padres - Fort Wayne TinCaps (Fort Wayne, IN - A - Midwest League) - 21 seasons
Fort Wayne and San Diego began their relationship in 1999. The TinCaps franchise has a history winding back to 1947, and the team has had many identities in cities in Illinois, Iowa, Wisconsin, and (now) Indiana. They were the Fort Wayne Wizards when they first affiliated with the Padres, later becoming the TinCaps in 2009.
Pittsburgh Pirates - Altoona Curve (Altoona, PA - AA - Eastern League) - 21 seasons
The Altoona Curve were established in 1999 as a result of major league expansion creating a need for more minor league clubs. The Pirates and the Curve have been affiliated since the 1999 season.
Oakland Athletics - Midland RockHounds (Midland, TX - AA - Southern League) - 21 seasons
Oakland and Midland began their partnership in 1999. Midland has been home to Double-A baseball since 1972, enjoying fairly long affiliations with the Cubs and Angels before joining up with the Athletics.
Tampa Bay Rays - Hudson Valley Renegades (Fishkill, NY - Short Season A - New York Penn League) - 24 years
The Rays have enjoyed a fair deal of continuity with minor league teams in their young history, and they still have affiliations with three teams from their inaugural season in 1998. The Durham Bulls and Princeton (Devil) Rays have both been partnered with Tampa Bay from early on, but the Hudson Valley Renegades are technically the oldest affiliate, playing under the Devil Rays banner as early as 1996, two full years before the major league club took the field.
Seattle Mariners - Tacoma Rainiers (Tacoma, WA - AAA - Pacific Coast League) / Everett AquaSox (Everett, WA - Short Season A - Northwest League) - 25 seasons
Seattle made two lasting affiliation changes in 1995, on the higher and lower ends of the minor league hierarchy. The Rainiers date back to the Tacoma Giants of 1960 and the AquaSox date back to the Everett Giants of 1984.
New York Yankees - Tampa Tarpons (Tampa, FL - A-Advanced - Florida State League) - 26 seasons
The Tampa Yankees were established in 1994, and have always been affiliated with the New York Yankees. The team re-branded as the Tarpons in 2019, harking back to another Tampa franchise with the name that played for about thirty years.
Colorado Rockies - Asheville Tourists (Asheville, NC - A - South Atlantic League) - 26 seasons
The Rockies' affiliation with the Tourists almost goes back through their entire history, but not quite. Asheville's professional baseball history dates back at least to 1897, with the Asheville Moonshiners. The Tourists are the only Single A affiliate Colorado has ever had; the team did not have one in their debut 1993 season (although they did have the A-Advanced Central Valley Rockies and the Short Season A Bend Rockies).
Washington Nationals - Harrisburg Senators (Harrisburg, PA - AA - Eastern League) - 29 seasons
Don't let the name fool you - this affiliation predates the Nationals' existence by almost 15 years. Professional baseball in Harrisburg has roots going back to the 1890's, with the Senators moniker being used as early as 1894. The Montreal Expos began their partnership with Harrisburg in 1991, and the relationship survived the Expos' relocation and re-branding.
Cleveland Indians - Akron RubberDucks (Akron, OH - AA - Eastern League) - 31 seasons
This affiliation started when the Vermont Mariners moved to Ohio and became the Canton-Akron Indians, starting their new identity and new partnership in 1989. The minor league club became the Akron Aeros in 1997, then re-branded again as the RubberDucks in 2014.
San Francisco Giants - San Jose Giants (San Jose, CA - A-Advanced - California League) - 32 seasons
San Jose has had a professional baseball team since 1962, starting with the San Jose Bees. Their affiliation with the San Francisco Giants began in 1988.
Toronto Blue Jays - Dunedin Blue Jays (Dunedin, FL - A-Advanced - Florida State League) - 33 seasons
There have actually been two different incarnations of the minor league club aligned with Toronto: the short-lived Dunedin Blue Jays of 1978-79, and the current iteration, which started play in 1987. Dunedin is also the major league Blue Jays' spring training home.
Chicago White Sox - Birmingham Barons (Birmingham, AL - AA - Southern League) - 34 seasons
Professional baseball in Birmingham dates back to at least the Birmingham Coal Barons in 1885. The current incarnation relocated from Montgomery, Alabama in 1981, and has partnered with the White Sox since 1986. They achieved some notoriety outside the baseball world in 1994 when Michael Jordan played with the team during his basketball hiatus.
Baltimore Orioles - Frederick Keys (Frederick, MD - A-Advanced - Carolina League) - 38 seasons
The Orioles affiliated with the Hagerstown Suns in 1981, then maintained that relationship through the team's relocation in 1989. Professional baseball has been a presence in Frederick since 1915, although there was a gap of several decades from 1930-1989 where the city did not have a team. They are currently marked as a contraction candidate.
Atlanta Braves - Danville Braves (Danville, VA - Rookie - Appalachian League) - 38 seasons
Atlanta's relationship with the Appalachian League Braves goes back to when the team was located in Pulaski, Virginia, starting in 1982. Atlanta affiliated with the Pulaski Braves for eleven seasons, then the team moved to Danville, where they continue to play today. They are currently marked as a contraction candidate.
Chicago Cubs - Iowa Cubs (Des Moines, IA - AAA - Pacific Coast League) - 39 seasons
The Iowa Oaks had several different affiliates during the first twelve or so years of existence, but finally struck a lasting relationship when they joined up with the Cubs in 1981. The spent their first year as a Cubs affiliate as the Oaks, then changed their name the following season.
New York Mets - Kingsport Mets (Kingsport, TN - Rookie - Appalachian League) - 40 seasons
The Kingsport club has typically been named for its parent team, having existed in some form since 1921 when they began play as the Kingsport Indians. They have been affiliated with the New York Mets since 1980. They are currently marked as a contraction candidate.
St. Louis Cardinals - Johnson City Cardinals (Johnson City, TN - Rookie - Appalachian League) - 45 seasons
The Johnson City Yankees became the Johnson City Cardinals when they affiliated with St. Louis in 1975. Johnson City has had a baseball club in some form since at least 1910, with the Johnson City Soldiers. They are currently marked as a contraction candidate.
Minnesota Twins - Elizabethton Twins (Elizabethton, TN - Rookie - Appalachian League) - 46 seasons
The Twins twins have been partnered since 1974, tied with the Red/Mustangs as the longest affiliation in Rookie level ball. Elizabethton has never had another major league parent club. They are currently marked as a contraction candidate.
Cincinnati Reds - Billings Mustangs (Billings, MT - Rookie - Pioneer League) - 46 seasons
The Reds and the Mustangs have shared a relationship since 1974, the longest affiliation in the Pioneer League. The Billings club has existed since 1948, with a five year hiatus during the 1960's. They are currently marked as a contraction candidate.
Boston Red Sox - Pawtucket Red Sox (Pawtucket, RI - AAA - International League) - 50 seasons
The PawSox's affiliation with the Red Sox began in 1970, but almost ended less than a decade later, when the team (briefly rechristened the Rhode Island Red Sox) was in massive debt, taken over by the league, and effectively dissolved. However, a local businessman stepped in and was awarded a new franchise, which took over the Pawtucket Red Sox brand, maintaining a consistent identity. Change is on the horizon, however, as the team intends to relocate to Worcester, Massachusetts for the 2021 season.
Kansas City Royals - Omaha Storm Chasers (Omaha, NE - AAA, Pacific Coast League) - 51 seasons
The Royals are one of only two teams (the other being the Tampa Bay Rays) with an affiliate that has remained constant since their inception. Both the Omaha and Kansas City teams were founded in 1969, and Kansas City has never had a different AAA team. The Storm Chasers were known as the Omaha Royals through most of their history, from 1969 to 2010, briefly re-branding as the Omaha Golden Spikes from 1999-2001 before becoming Royals again. They adopted their current name in 2011.
Philadelphia Phillies - Reading Fightin Phils (Reading, PA - AA, Eastern League) - 53 seasons
Established in 1967 as the Reading Phillies, the "Fightins" (as they have been known since 2013) have never been affiliated with another franchise. Baseball in Reading dates back to at least 1858, and city has had affiliated minor league baseball off and on since 1927. The Philadelphia Phillies bought the team outright in 1998.
Detroit Tigers - Lakeland Flying Tigers (Lakeland, FL - A-Advanced, Florida State League) - 57 seasons
The Tigers began their alliance with the Lakeland Tigers in 1963. Lakeland has had a baseball team since 1960, briefly affiliating with the Indians and Giants before beginning a relationship with Detroit that has lasted for over half a century. They were renamed the Flying Tigers in 2006 as an homage to the Lakeland School of Aeronautics, which trained thousands of pilots during World War II. The Flying Tigers play in Joker Marchant Stadium, which has served as the Spring Training home of the Tigers since 1966.
TRASH TALK: YOUR OTHER SPORTS TEAMS SUCK EDITION
I’VE SHIT ON YOUR CITIES GEOGRAPHY AND RANDOM SHIT FOR THE LAST 3 WEEKS. NOW LET’S SHIT ON YOUR CITIES OTHER SPORTS TEAMS. submitted by madman1101 to USLPRO [link] [comments]
TFC 2 vs PGH
TORONTO, YOU’RE KNOWN FOR LOVING HOCKEY. YOU’VE GOT 13 STANLEY CUPS, THAT’S COOL, BUT REALLY? YOU HAVEN’T WON ONE IN 50 YEARS. MAYBE YOU SHOULD START TRYING. PITTSBURGH, I’M NOT SURE WHICH SPORT TO CHOOSE. YOUR BASEBALL TEAM HASN’T WON A TITLE SINCE 1979, WHICH ISN’T GOOD, BUT YOU’VE SOMEHOW FOUND A WAY TO KILL EVERY BASKETBALL TEAM YOU’VE EVER HAD. WHICH IS EVEN WORSE.
KICKERS VS BABY BULLS
RICHMOND DOESN’T REALLY HAVE ANYTHING GOING FOR IT. THE KICKERS SUCK AND ARE THE HIGHEST LEVEL TEAM IN THE CITY. THE FLYING SQUIRRELS HAVEN’T WON A LEAGUE TITLE SINCE BEING TAKEN OVER BY THE GIANTS, BUT WORSE THAN THAT, YOUR MASCOT’S NAME IS NUTSY. NEW YORK HAS WAY TOO MANY TEAMS TO BE AS AWFUL AS THEY ARE. THE KNICKS? METS? NETS? RED BULLS? JETS? THE GIANTS ARE NOW A JOKE. YOU’RE THE BIGGEST CITY IN AMERICA WITH SO MUCH GOING FOR YOU, YET YOU FIND A WAY TO SUCK.
FCC VS LCFC
CINCINNATI, WHAT MORE DO I HAVE TO SAY ABOUT YOU OTHER THAN MARGE SCHOTT? OH IS THAT NOT GOOD ENOUGH? SHOUT OUT TO ALL THE BENGALS SUPER BOWLS. AT LEAST YOU HAVE SOME TOP LEVEL TEAMS, UNLIKE YOUR OPPONENTS, WHO WORSHIP COLLEGE BECAUSE IT’S THE BEST YOU CAN EVER GET, AND THE ONLY WAY TO GET PLAYERS THERE IS BY GIVING THEM HOOKERS.
ALSO, LOUISVILLE… FACEPAINT TRIGGERED
NCFC VS INDY
NORTH CAROLINA, YOU HAVE ONE CHAMPIONSHIP BETWEEN ALL YOUR TEAMS. THE HORNETS SUCK, THE PANTHERS CHOKE EVERY YEAR, AND THE HURRICANES ARE SOMEHOW THE TEAM THAT HAVE LIFTED A TROPHY. MEANWHILE INDY HAS NEVER WON AN NBA TITLE. THEY’VE WON A FEW WITH THAT SICK ABA BALL THOUGH. THE COLTS WON A SUPER BOWL, AND FOR SOME REASON DON’T COUNT THE ONE IN BALTIMORE. MEANWHILE THE INDIANS CHOKE IN THE PLAYOFFS. AT LEAST THE FEVER WON A WNBA TITLE RECENTLY.
TBR VS OTT
TAMPA BAY HAS… THE RAYS? WHO PLAY IN A DUMP. THEY’RE THE BOTTOMFEEDERS OF THE AL EAST AND SUCK. THE LIGHTNING ARE THE ONLY GOOD TEAM IN YOUR CITY AND EVEN THEY USUALLY FALL APART COME PLAYOFF TIME. MEANWHILE OTTAWA, YOU HAVEN’T WON A GREY CUP SINCE ‘76. AGAIN YOU’RE KNOWN FOR HOCKEY BUT THIS ITERATION OF THE SENS HAS NEVER WON A CUP. APPARENTLY YOU HAVE A HURLING TEAM? SO THAT’S COOL THOUGH.
COLORADO SPRINGS VS RGV
COLORADO SPRINGS, YOU HAVE ONLY ONE OTHER TEAM. THE SKY SOX. WHAT KIND OF FUCKING NAME IS THAT? BESIDES, WITH A NAME LIKE THAT, YOU’D AT LEAST EXPECT TO BE AFFILIATED WITH EITHER SOX TEAM IN MLB. NOPE. NOT ONE BIT. ALSO, YOUR MASCOT’S NAME IS SOX? WHAT THE FUCK. RIO GRANDE VALLEY, I’D TALK SHIT ABOUT YOUR SPORTS TEAMS, BUT YOU REALLY DON’T HAVE ANY… SO… WHAT AM I SUPPOSED TO DO HERE? I GUESS I’LL JUST MOVE ON.
OKC VS T2
THE THUNDER ARE PROUD TO CALL THEMSELVES 4 TIME CONFERENCE CHAMPS AND 1 TIME NBA CHAMPS. OH WAIT. THEY CAN’T. THOSE HAPPENED IN SEATTLE. ALSO ONE OF YOUR RETIRED NUMBERS IS “MICROPHONE” ACCORDING TO WIKIPEDIA. K. OTHERWISE YOUR CITY HAS LIKE 4 ROLLER DERBY TEAMS. YOU’RE PRETTY MUCH TRYING TO BE AS HIPSTER AS PORTLAND. OH SPEAKING OF PORTLAND. THE TRAIL BLAZERS HAVE BEEN PRETTY MUCH IRRELEVANT THE LAST… LONG TIME. SOMEHOW YOU WON THE DIVISION IN 2015 BUT HAVE YOU ACCOMPLISHED ANYTHING SINCE… 1992? MEANWHILE THE THORNS AND TIMBERS ARE A THING. I GUESS.
NASHVILLE VS CHARLOTTE
NASHVILLE SOMEHOW MADE THE STANLEY CUP FINALS ONCE BUT HEY. YOU LOST. YOU’VE NEVER WON YOUR DIVISION EITHER. YOU COULD HAVE LANDED YOURSELVES THE SACRAMENTO KINGS INSTEAD IN THE 90’S BUT HEY. YOU CHOSE HOCKEY, AND CHOSE TO SUCK. CHARLOTTE I PRETTY MUCH COVERED YOU WHEN I TALKED ABOUT NCFC BUT HERE WE GO AGAIN. THE HORNETS SUCK, THE PANTHERS CHOKE EVERY YEAR. FUCK IT. GO BACK UP AND READ NCFC AGAIN.
STLFC VS FRESNO
ST LOUIS, WHERE DO I START? THE RAMS? SORRY, I’VE BEEN THERE ENOUGH TIMES THIS SEASON… ANYWAY…. CONGRATS TO THE BLUES ON ALL YOUR STANLEY CU- OH WAIT. IT’S BEEN 51 YEARS AND YOU HAVEN’T WON ONE. MEANWHILE THE TEAM FORMERLY KNOWN AS THE PERFECTOS IS THE ONLY THING THAT KEEPS YOUR CITY SOMEWHAT RELEVANT IN THE SPORTS LANDSCAPE. AT LEAST YOU’RE NOT FRESNO. WHO HAVE…. A LONG HISTORY OF CHANGING AFFILIATES WITH THE GRIZZLIES. I THINK YOU SET THE RECORD OF MOST TIMES YOU’VE BEEN TRANSFERRED. YOU’VE BEEN AFFILIATED WITH 7 MAJOR LEAGUE TEAMS. NOBODY WANTS YOU.
SAN ANTONIO VS SWOPE PARK
SAN ANTONIO, YOU’VE WON 5 TITLES, ALL IN THE NBA. OTHER THAN THAT, YOUR CITY IS IRRELEVANT IN THE SPORTS LANDSCAPE. THE AHL SUCKS, HELL, YOU DON’T EVEN PLAY IN A DECENT MINOR LEAGUE BASEBALL LEAGUE. FUCK THE TEXAS LEAGUE. MEANWHILE SWOPE PARK IS PRETTY MUCH KANSAS CITY, SO, THE CHIEFS HAVE WON ONE SUPER BOWL 50 YEARS AGO. THE ROYALS WON A WORLD SERIES OR TWO, BUT THATS PRETTY MUCH IT. AND SPORTING KANSAS CITY GAVE UP ON THE SECOND GREATEST NAME IN MLS HISTORY. RIP WIZARDS, RIP METROSTARS.
OCSC VS LAG2
ORANGE COUNTY, YOU’RE HOME TO… THE (NOT SO) MIGHTY DUCKS AND THE ANGELS. BOTH MAKE FOR GREAT MOVIES, BUT AWFUL SPORTS TEAMS. LA HAS THE KINGS WHO, HAVE BEEN OK, AND THE ONLY DECENT THING ABOUT ALL YOUR SPORTS TEAMS. YOU HAD TO STEAL THE RAMS AND CHARGERS TO GET YOUR OWN NFL TEAM. NOT TO MENTION THE CLIPPERS AND LAKERS BOTH SUCK.
PHOENIX VS BUTTERFLIES
PHOENIX, YOU TECHNICALLY HAVE NOTHING, BUT, I GUESS I’LL LET THAT SLIDE. THE COYOTES HAD TO BE LEAGUE OWNED, THE CARDINALS CHOKED IN THE SUPER BOWL, AND DROGBA RETIRED. MONARCHS, YOU’RE CLOSE ENOUGH TO SALT LAKE I’LL CONSIDER YOU THERE. THE JAZZ HAVE SURPRISED THIS YEAR, BUT THAT DOESN’T MEAN THEY’RE RELEVANT. YOU’VE BEEN SWEPT OUT OF THE PLAYOFFS THE LAST 3 TIMES YOU’VE MADE IT, AND YOU’VE NEVER WON AN NBA TITLE. K.
SAC REP VS SOUNDERS 2
SACRAMENTO, YOU’VE TECHNICALLY WON AN NBA TITLE, BUT I DON’T COUNT IT. NOT ONLY WAS IT PRE ABA/NBA MERGER, BUT IT WAS ALSO PRE SACRAMENTO. YOUR TEAM WAS IN 2 DIFFERENT CITIES BETWEEN THEN AND NOW, HELL, YOU WENT FROM ROCHESTER TO CINCY TO KANSAS CITY/OMAHA TO KANSAS CITY TO SACRAMENTO. YOU HAVEN’T BEEN RELEVANT IN A DECADE, EVEN WITH SHAQ BUYING IN. SEATTLE, YOU LOST THE SONICS TO OKLAHOMA CITY. HOW? THE SEAHAWKS WON A SUPER BOWL RECENTLY, BUT THE MARINERS DIDN’T REALIZE HOW BAD THEY FUCKED UP UNTIL THEY GOT BACK ICHIRO. THAT WAS PRETTY MUCH ALL THAT TEAM HAD OTHER THAN KEN GRIFFEY JR. YOUR TEAMS SUCK. YOU SUCK. AND WELL, I DON’T GIVE A FUCK.
Kiss Announces Full 'End of the Road' Tour Dates
submitted by stadium_help to KISS [link] [comments]
Presale starts tomorrow! Who's going to see a show?
Just looked at the presale code options:
Live Nation Mobile App Presale Code = COVERT Live Nation Presale Code = VOCALS Fan Club Presale Code = You must have been a member of the Kiss fan club before the announcement of the tour in order to get access to these tickets. Members will be emailed presale code information. VIP/Platinum Package Presale Information = No presale codes are required to buy VIP packages but they cost a premium. Spotfiy Presale Code = These codes are given to users who listen to a lot of Kiss on Spotify. Selection is random and codes are unique and cannot be shared.
Ticketmaster Tickets Link
- Jan. 31 - Vancouver, BC, Canada @ Rogers Arena
- Feb. 01 - Portland, OR @ Rose Garden Moda Center
- Feb. 02 - Tacoma, WA @Tacoma Dome
- Feb. 04 - Spokane, WA @ Spokane Arena
- Feb. 07 - San Diego, CA @ Viejas Arena
- Feb. 08 - Fresno, CA @ Save Mart Center
- Feb. 09 - Sacramento, CA @ Golden 1 Center
- Feb. 12 - Anaheim, CA @ Honda Center
- Feb. 13 - Glendale, AZ @ Gila River Arena
- Feb. 15 - Las Vegas, NV @ T-Mobile Arena
- Feb. 16 - Los Angeles, CA @ The Forum
- Feb. 19 - Corpus ChrisW, TX @ American Bank Center
- Feb. 20 - Dallas, TX @ American Airlines Center
- Feb. 22 - New Orleans, LA @ Smoothie King Center
- Feb. 23 - Memphis, TN @ FedEx Forum
- Feb. 26 - Oklahoma City, OK @ Chesapeake
- Feb. 27 - Kansas City, MO @ Sprint Center
- Mar. 01 - Milwaukee, WI @ Fiserv Forum
- Mar. 02 - Chicago, IL @ United Center
- Mar. 04 - Minneapolis, MN @ Target Center
- Mar. 06 - Sioux Falls, SD @ Denny Sanford Premier Center
- Mar. 07 - Omaha, NE @ CenturyLink Center
- Mar. 09 - Grand Rapids, MI @ Van Andel Arena
- Mar. 10 - Moline, IL @ Mark of the Quad CiWes
- Mar. 12 - Louisville, KY @ KFC Yum! Center
- Mar. 13 - Detroit, MI @ Lible Caesars Arena
- Mar. 16 - Columbus, OH @ Nationwide Arena
- Mar. 17 - Cleveland, OH @ Quicken Loans Arena
- Mar. 19 - Montreal, QC, @ Canada Bell Centre
- Mar. 20 - Toronto, ON, @ Canada Air Canada Centre
- Mar. 22 - Uniondale, NY @ Nassau Veterans Memorial Coliseum
- Mar. 23 - Uncasville, CT @ Mohegan Sun Arena
- Mar. 26 - Boston, MA TD @ Garden
- Mar. 27 - New York, NY @ Madison Square Garden
- Mar. 29 - Philadelphia, PA @ Wells Fargo Center
- Mar. 30 - Pittsburgh, PA @ PPG Paints Arena
- Apr. 02 - Quebec City, QC @ Videotron Centre
- Apr. 03 - Obawa, ON @ Canadian Tire Centre
- Apr. 06 - Raleigh, NC @ PNC Arena
- Apr. 07 - Atlanta, GA @ Philips Arena
- Apr. 09 - Nashville, TN @ Bridgestone Arena
- Apr. 11 - Tampa, [email protected] Amalie Arena
- Apr. 12 - Jacksonville, [email protected] Jacksonville Veterans Memorial Arena
- Apr. 13 - Birmingham, AL @ BJCC
- May 27 - Leipziger Messe - Leipzig, Germany
- May 29 - Stadthalle - Vienna, Austria
- May 31 - Konigsplatz - Munich, Germany
- Jun. 02 - Georg Meiches Stadium - Essen, Germany
- Jun. 04 - Waldbuhne - Berlin, Germany
- Jun. 05 - Expo-Plaza - Hannover, Germany
- Jun. 07 - Sweden Rock Festival - Sölvesborg, Sweden
- Jun. 11 - Ice Arena - St. Petersburg, Russia
- Jun. 13 - Dinamon Stadium - Moscow, Russia
- Jun. 16 - Nsa Stadium - Kiev, Ukraine
- Jun. 18 - Tauron Arena - Krakow, Poland
- Jun. 25 - Ziggo Dome - Amsterdam, Netherlands
- Jun. 27 - Tons Of Rock - Oslo, Norway
- Jun. 28 - Trondheim Rocks - Trondheim, Norway
- Jul. 02 - Ippodromo Snai San Siro - Milan, Italy
- Jul. 04 - Hallenstadion - Zurich, Switzerland
- Jul. 06 - Rennbahn - Iffezheim, Germany
- Jul. 09 - Birmingham Arena - Birmingham, England
- Jul. 11 - O2 Arena - London, England
- Jul. 12 - Manchester Arena - Manchester, England
- Jul. 14 - Newcastle Arena - Newcastle, England
- Jul. 16 - Sse Hydro - Glasgow, Scotland
Independent March For Our Lives Total Crowd Estimate- Lowest Estimates
submitted by localpedestrian to neveragainmovement [link] [comments]
Ive been researching from local news and national news about sister marches that were held, and the numbers that the crowds were estimated at. I took the lowest estimates for all marches, added the numbers, and got these results:
- 825,587 From Sister Marches in The United States LOWEST ESTIMATE
- 1,025,587 From All U.S. Marches including D.C. LOWEST ESTIMATE
- 1,810 From Europe LOWEST ESTIMATE
- 1,027,397 Worldwide LOWEST ESTIMATE
Sources (Currently in the Process of putting up sources. I estimate all sources will be put up by Tuesday night. There are hundreds of more sources)
- Birmingham, Alabama: http://www.al.com/news/index.ssf/2018/03/birminghams_march_for_our_live.html
- Dothan, Alabama: http://www.al.com/news/index.ssf/2018/03/alabamas_march_for_our_lives_2.html
- Florence, Alabama: http://whnt.com/2018/03/24/florence-residents-gather-for-their-own-march-for-our-lives-event/
- Jasper, Alabama: http://www.al.com/news/index.ssf/2018/03/alabamas_march_for_our_lives_2.html
- Mobile, Alabama: http://www.al.com/news/index.ssf/2018/03/alabamas_march_for_our_lives_2.html
- Montgomery, Alabama: http://www.al.com/news/index.ssf/2018/03/alabamas_march_for_our_lives_2.html
- Selma, Alabama: http://www.al.com/news/index.ssf/2018/03/alabamas_march_for_our_lives_2.html
- Anchorage, Alaska: https://www.alaskapublic.org/2018/03/24/marches-held-across-the-state-in-solidarity-with-dc-march-for-our-lives/
- Anchorage, Alaska: https://www.adn.com/alaska-news/anchorage/2018/03/24/were-just-sick-and-tired-demonstrators-in-anchorage-protest-gun-violence/
- Bethel, Alaska: http://kyuk.org/post/bethel-joins-nationwide-march-our-lives-demand-safer-gun-laws
- Fairbanks, Alaska: http://www.newsminer.com/news/local_news/fairbanksans-join-nationwide-protest-against-gun-violence/article_e5b06280-2fcc-11e8-86e0-1fe1e163000c.html
- Homer, Alaska: http://kbbi.org/post/homer-residents-join-national-call-gun-control
- Juneau, Alaska: https://www.ktoo.org/2018/03/24/juneau-residents-legislators-call-for-gun-reform-at-march-for-our-lives-protest/
- Sitka, Alaska: https://www.kcaw.org/2018/03/26/lone-sitka-protestor-joins-national-cry-for-gun-safety/
- Soldotna, Alaska: http://peninsulaclarion.com/local/news/2018-03-24/community-members-march-our-lives
- Bisbee, Arizona: http://www.myheraldreview.com/news/community/locals-march-in-support-of-national-movement-against-gun-violence/article_c879f5e4-2fc4-11e8-9eb5-4fcc22ebd0e7.html
- Flagstaff, Arizona: http://azdailysun.com/news/local/photo-gallery-flagstaff-march-for-our-lives-attracts/collection_adb9f133-ec35-512d-92c5-49ac7d8b5f5d.html#1
- Flagstaff, Arizona: http://knau.org/post/flagstaff-march-our-lives-draws-nearly-1000
- Lake Havasu City, Arizona: http://www.havasunews.com/news/marching-with-a-message/article_b0579dd4-2ff3-11e8-9a93-6351c0194b3f.html
- Payson, Arizona: http://www.paysonroundup.com/news/march-for-our-lives-comes-to-payson/article_69ec065d-5eda-52f5-a24f-18e3ee345ae7.html
- Phoenix, Arizona: http://www.fox10phoenix.com/news/arizona-news/arizona-dps-estimates-15000-people-attended-phoenix-march-for-our-lives-rally
- Prescott, Arizona: https://www.dcourier.com/news/2018/ma25/march-our-lives/
- Show Low, Arizona: http://www.wmicentral.com/march-for-our-lives-steps-onto-show-low-streets/article_8809df10-63cb-5d70-b09f-a3a08437c67f.html
- Sierra Vista, Arizona: http://www.myheraldreview.com/news/community/locals-march-in-support-of-national-movement-against-gun-violence/article_c879f5e4-2fc4-11e8-9eb5-4fcc22ebd0e7.html
- Tuscon, Arizona: http://www.kvoa.com/story/37802425/tucson-students-lead-march-for-our-lives-ask-public-to-vote
- Bentonville, Arkansas: http://www.arkansasonline.com/news/2018/ma25/hundreds-participate-in-peaceful-nwa-ma/
- Fort Smith, Arkansas: http://www.swtimes.com/news/20180325/demonstrators-in-fort-smith-join-in-march-for-our-lives
- Jonesboro, Arkansas: http://ualrpublicradio.org/post/march-our-lives-jonesboro-rally-and-remembrance-school-shooting-20-years-ago
- Little Rock, Arkansas: http://www.arkansasonline.com/news/2018/ma25/arkansans-join-marches-20180325/
- Springdale, Arkansas: http://www.arkansasonline.com/news/2018/ma25/hundreds-participate-in-peaceful-nwa-ma/
- Alameda, California: https://alamedasun.com/news/locals-protest-guns
- Aptos, California: http://www.santacruzsentinel.com/article/NE/20180324/NEWS/180329806
- Arcata, California: http://www.times-standard.com/article/NJ/20180324/NEWS/180329897
- Bakersfield, California: http://kvpr.org/post/kern-county-students-join-gun-control-march
- Benicia, California: http://www.timesheraldonline.com/article/NH/20180324/NEWS/180329868
- Benicia, California: https://patch.com/california/benicia/1-500-benicians-march-their-lives
- Burbank, California: http://www.latimes.com/socal/burbank-leadenews/tn-blr-me-burbank-march-20180324-story.html
- Burlingame, California: https://theburlingameb.org/news/2018/3/26/burlingame-march-for-our-lives-draws-crown-of-400
- Chico, California: http://krcrtv.com/news/butte-county/march-for-our-lives-rally-sweeps-chico
- Encitinas, California: http://www.thecoastnews.com/2018/03/29/nationwide-rally-against-gun-violence-comes-to-encinitas/
- Fresno, California: http://www.fresnobee.com/news/local/article206741864.html
- Huntington Beach, California: http://www.latimes.com/socal/daily-pilot/news/tn-dpt-me-march-lives-20180324-story.html
- Livermore, California: http://www.independentnews.com/news/hundreds-rally-in-the-tri-valley-at-march-for-ouarticle_fddcd5b2-3311-11e8-b9c9-b3f7b1dd181c.html
- Long Beach, California: https://lbpost.com/news/march-for-our-lives-long-beach-draws-thousands-to-bixby-park-in-support-of-stricter-gun-laws/
- Los Angeles, California: http://www.latimes.com/local/lanow/la-me-ln-los-angeles-march-20180325-story.html
- Los Angeles, California: http://abc7.com/politics/march-for-our-lives-la-thousands-take-to-the-streets/3255190/
- Manhattan Beach, California: http://tbrnews.com/news/thousands-march-along-strand-in-gun-violence-protest/article_9699ff56-2fe7-11e8-996f-3fb2d2c0b52f.html
- Menlo Park, California: https://www.almanacnews.com/news/2018/03/26/menlo-park-gun-violence-protesters-take-to-streets-at-march-for-our-lives-event
- Menlo Park, California: http://inmenlo.com/2018/03/24/menlo-park-residents-take-to-the-streets-calling-for-an-end-to-gun-violence/
- Merced, California: http://www.losbanosenterprise.com/latest-news/article206303059.html
- Modesto, California: http://www.modbee.com/news/local/article206488979.html
- Monterey, California: http://www.montereyherald.com/article/NF/20180324/NEWS/180329893
- Napa, California: https://www.dailyrepublic.com/community/community-news-and-views/good-news-napa-students-march-for-our-lives-mar-24-2017/
- Oakland, California: https://www.sfchronicle.com/bayarea/article/Thousands-protest-in-Oakland-and-SF-to-demand-an-12779223.php
- Pico Rivera, California: https://www.whittierdailynews.com/2018/03/24/more-than-200-take-part-in-pico-rivera-march-pushing-for-stronger-gun-control/
- Redding, California: https://www.redding.com/story/news/2018/03/24/local-students-add-voices-march-our-lives-movement/456730002/
- Redwood City, California: http://woodsidepawprint.com/top-stories/2018/03/26/march-for-our-lives-in-redwood-city/
- Ridgecrest, California: http://www.ridgecrestca.com/news/20180327/students-lead-march-for-our-lives-in-ridgecrest
- Riverside, California: https://www.pe.com/2018/03/24/students-in-riverside-to-march-for-solutions-to-gun-violence/
- Rocklin, California: http://ulocal.kcra.com/mediadetail/32629093-Hundreds-join-the-March-for-Ou?gid=79861&uid=&sort=upload%20DESC&offset=1
- Sacramento, California: http://www.abc10.com/article/news/local/march-for-our-lives-rally-draws-estimated-6000-in-sacramento/103-531646132
- San Bernardino, California: https://www.pe.com/2018/03/24/students-in-riverside-to-march-for-solutions-to-gun-violence/
- San Clemente, California: https://www.ocregister.com/2018/03/28/1500-march-in-san-clemente-to-push-for-gun-control-efforts-to-continue-at-cusd-board-meeting/
- San Diego, California: http://fox5sandiego.com/2018/03/24/watch-live-san-diego-march-for-our-lives-protest/
- San Francisco, California: https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/live/2018/ma24/march-for-our-lives-protest-gun-violence-washington
- San Jose, California: http://www.sanjoseinside.com/2018/03/25/march-for-our-lives-san-jose-theres-too-much-gun-violence/
- SLO, California: http://www.sanluisobispo.com/news/local/article206616449.html
- Santa Ana, California: https://www.ocregister.com/2018/03/24/o-c-students-to-participate-in-march-for-our-lives/
- Santa Barbara, California: https://www.noozhawk.com/article/santa_barbara_gun_violence_march_for_our_lives
- Santa Clarita, California: https://signalscv.com/2018/03/santa-clarita-residents-join-national-march-lives-rally/
- Santa Rosa, California: http://www.pressdemocrat.com/news/8148099-181/thousands-decry-gun-violence-in
- Ventura, California: https://www.vcstar.com/story/news/2018/03/24/video-ventura-march-our-lives-event/455917002/
- Weed, California: http://www.mtshastanews.com/news/20180324/students-teachers-joined-march-for-our-lives-in-weed
- Basalt, Colorado: https://www.postindependent.com/news/hundreds-in-basalt-call-for-stricter-gun-control-at-march-for-our-lives-rally/
- Carbondale, Colorado: https://www.postindependent.com/news/more-than-100-gather-in-carbondale-for-march-for-our-lives/
- Fort Collins, Colorado: https://www.coloradoan.com/story/news/2018/03/24/march-our-lives-participants-old-town-demand-change-gun-laws/455921002/
- Longmont, Colorado: http://www.dailycamera.com/longmont-news/ci_31758108/gun-violence-protesters-line-longmont-street-march-our
- Pueblo, Colorado: http://gazette.com/pueblos-march-for-our-lives-i-got-tired-of-things-not-happening/article/1623266
- Vail, Colorado: https://www.vaildaily.com/entertainment/march-for-our-lives-in-vail-includes-members-of-parkland-florida-community/
- Enfield, Connecticut: https://patch.com/connecticut/enfield/over-200-gather-enfield-march-our-lives
- Guilford, Connecticut: http://www.shorelinetimes.com/news/march-for-our-lives-thousands-fill-guilford-green-for-gun/article_887086d2-5d27-599c-8cf1-b39cbcbf3585.html
- Hartford, Connecticut: https://ctmirror.org/2018/03/24/thousands-come-together-march-lives-hartford/
- Kent, Connecticut: https://www.rep-am.com/news/news-local/2018/03/24/500-march-for-school-safety-in-kent/
- Roxbury, Connecticut: https://www.primepublishers.com/voicesnews/news/community_news/area-residents-rally-in-roxbury-to-support-march-for-ouarticle_5e7a3340-3201-11e8-9199-eba4325d612c.html
- Shelton, Connecticut: https://www.sheltonherald.com/110471/residents-march-for-their-lives/
- Stamford, Connecticut: https://www.stamfordadvocate.com/local/article/Thousands-participate-in-Stamford-s-March-for-12779190.php
- Stonington, Connecticut: http://www.thewesterlysun.com/News/Stonington/March-for-Our-Lives-at-Stonington-High-draws-hundreds.html
- Westport, Connecticut: https://patch.com/connecticut/westport/over-1-000-show-march-our-lives-westport
- Lewes, Delaware: http://www.capegazette.com/article/hundreds-turn-out-march-our-lives-lewes/153526
- Rehoboth, Delaware: https://www.delmarvanow.com/story/news/local/delaware/2018/03/24/march-our-lives-rehoboth-world-we-living-now/452476002/
- Wilmington, Delaware: https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2018/03/24/too-many-children-being-hurt-former-vp-joe-biden-surprises-delaware-march-our-lives-rally/455760002/
- Boca Raton, Florida: https://www.mypalmbeachpost.com/news/local-education/march-for-our-lives-palm-beach-county-tops-000-boca-leads-list/HRQVXe7soDBb6nUgwQe32O/
- Boynton Beach, Florida: https://www.mypalmbeachpost.com/news/local-education/march-for-our-lives-palm-beach-county-tops-000-boca-leads-list/HRQVXe7soDBb6nUgwQe32O/
- Delray Beach, Florida: https://www.mypalmbeachpost.com/news/local-education/march-for-our-lives-palm-beach-county-tops-000-boca-leads-list/HRQVXe7soDBb6nUgwQe32O/
- Jupiter, Florida: https://www.mypalmbeachpost.com/news/local-education/march-for-our-lives-palm-beach-county-tops-000-boca-leads-list/HRQVXe7soDBb6nUgwQe32O/
- West Palm Beach, Florida: https://www.mypalmbeachpost.com/news/local-education/march-for-our-lives-palm-beach-county-tops-000-boca-leads-list/HRQVXe7soDBb6nUgwQe32O/
- Atlanta, Georgia: https://www.wsbtv.com/news/local/live-updates-march-for-our-lives-rally-against-gun-violence-in-atlanta/721073949
- Brunswick, Georgia: https://thebrunswicknews.com/news/local_news/locals-take-part-in-national-march-for-our-lives/image_5ae3fad3-3332-5329-ad83-6f5334c92b5d.html
- Clarkesville, Georgia: https://nowhabersham.com/northeast-georgians-join-national-march-for-our-lives/
- Columbus, Georgia: https://www.washingtonpost.com/local/2018/live-updates/politics/march-for-our-lives/in-georgia-questioning-his-affiliation-as-a-republican/?utm_term=.2cfa66c77da5
- Covington, Georgia: https://www.covnews.com/news/cities/march-our-lives-comes-covington/
- Dashlonega, Georgia: https://www.nytimes.com/2018/03/24/us/politics/students-lead-huge-rallies-for-gun-control-across-the-us.html
- Dalton, Georgia: http://www.dailycitizen.news/news/local_news/students-join-the-march-for-our-lives-in-dalton/article_013a1389-4cd0-54c6-8d58-6ee2af22cb54.html
- Savannah, Georgia: http://www.wsav.com/news/local-news/whats-next-for-march-for-our-lives/1080535084
- Statesboro, Georgia: http://www.thegeorgeanne.com/camayak-content/article_5b0390c1-6648-5386-ae51-b12ef4d6ae8c.html
- Honolulu, Hawaii: http://www.kitv.com/story/37802661/thousands-take-to-the-streets-in-hawaii-to-support-march-for-our-lives-rally
- Boise, Idaho: http://www.idahostatesman.com/news/local/article206692464.html
- Carbondale, Illinois: http://thesouthern.com/news/local/communities/carbondale/hundreds-protest-gun-violence-in-carbondale-march-for-our-lives/article_c1be63ac-5f51-5d76-8825-54340ca0a78f.html
- Chicago, Illinois: https://www.nbcchicago.com/news/local/85000-marchers-in-chicago-march-for-our-lives-477838383.html
- Indianapolis, Indiana: https://www.indystar.com/story/news/education/2018/03/24/indiana-students-adults-head-statehouse-take-part-national-march-our-lives-protest/447219002/
- Fort Wayne, Indiana: http://www.wane.com/news/local-news/fort-wayne-joins-national-march-for-our-lives-event/1075352935
- Iowa City, Iowa: https://www.press-citizen.com/story/news/education/2018/03/24/march-our-lives-iowa-city-gun-control-parkland-florida-school-shooting/455858002/
- Wichita, Kansas: http://www.kansas.com/news/local/article206697719.html
- Bowling Green, Kentucky: http://wkuherald.com/news/bowling-green-community-marches-for-their-lives/article_3794eb52-3149-11e8-b300-4386c449662f.html
- Calvert City, Kentucky: http://www.wpsdlocal6.com/2018/03/24/students-rally-for-change-at-marshall-county-march-for-our-lives/
- Lexington, Kentucky: http://www.wkyt.com/content/news/Hundreds-rally-downtown-at-Lexingtons-March-For-Our-Lives-477839763.html
- Louisville, Kentucky: https://www.courier-journal.com/story/news/education/2018/03/24/louisville-students-join-national-march-our-lives-call-stricter-gun-laws/389293002/
- Lafayette, Louisiana: https://www.theadvertiser.com/story/news/local/2018/03/24/lafayette-joins-national-march-our-lives-movement/425320002/
- Portland, Maine: https://www.pressherald.com/2018/03/24/crowds-gather-in-downtown-portland-for-marchforourlives-protest/
- Ocean City, Maryland: http://www.wmdt.com/news/delaware/organizers-prepare-for-march-for-our-lives-event/720414011
- Boston Massachusetts: https://www.bostonglobe.com/metro/2018/03/24/thousands-protest-gun-violence-boston-march-for-our-lives-rally/A5rVbMM7BBC4WPmnhC6KuN/story.html
- Alpena, Michigan: http://www.watz.com/wire/localnews/04532_March_for_Our_Lives_in_Alpena_063614.php
- Detroit, Michigan: https://www.freep.com/story/news/local/michigan/2018/03/24/march-our-lives-2018/455379002/
- Lansing, Michigan: https://www.lansingstatejournal.com/story/news/local/2018/03/24/michigans-march-our-lives-draws-hundreds-capitol/452906002/
- Brainerd, Minnesota: https://www.brainerddispatch.com/news/4422677-hundreds-attend-march-our-lives-brainerd
- Charles City, Minnesota: http://www.kimt.com/content/news/Charles-City-holds-March-For-Our-Lives-rally-on-Sunday-478006643.html
- Duluth, Minnesota: http://www.duluthnewstribune.com/news/education/4422448-no-more-silence-march-our-lives-draws-hundreds-downtown-duluth
- Grand Marais, Minnesota: http://wtip.org/community-members-gather-march-our-lives
- Rochester, Minnesota: http://www.kaaltv.com/news/hundreds-turn-out-for-march-for-our-lives-in-rocheste4839373/
- Mankato, Minnesota: http://www.mankatofreepress.com/cnhi_network/march-for-our-lives-crowd-sings-for-parkland-victim/article_031eba7e-80f1-5dbe-b822-ded49d4b9d4f.html
- Saint Paul, Minnesota: http://www.kare11.com/video/news/news-18000-gather-in-st-paul-for-march-for-our-lives/89-8046334
- Sartell, Minnesota: https://www.sctimes.com/story/news/local/sartell/2018/03/24/enough-crowd-backs-gun-safety-sartells-march-our-lives-event/447314002/
- Saint Louis, Missouri: http://www.stltoday.com/news/local/metro/thousands-march-in-downtown-st-louis-for-gun-control-mccaskill/article_f4fd0379-3ca0-5dd7-b4a3-4d5ecd07f922.html
- Missoula, Montana: http://www.kpax.com/story/37798968/missoula-hosts-march-for-our-lives-event
- Hastings, Nebraska: http://www.ksnblocal4.com/content/news/Hastings-students-community-members-participate-in-March-for-Our-Lives-477833713.html
- Kearney, Nebraska: http://www.kearneyhub.com/news/local/participants-in-kearney-s-march-for-our-lives-ask-foarticle_8ed1ad34-2f9f-11e8-ba61-dbe3420f40b1.html
- Lincoln, Nebraska: http://www.1011now.com/content/news/Protesters-in-Lincoln-join-national-call-for-stricter-gun-laws-477825733.html
- Lincoln, Nebraska: http://journalstar.com/news/local/senseless-gun-violence-stops-here-at-least-protest-gun-violence/article_15c6c28a-4920-58da-816d-0ef62656dce3.html
- Omaha, Nebraska: http://www.omaha.com/news/education/enough-is-enough-demand-change-to-gun-laws-at-omaha/article_00e771b4-ef11-52ae-a533-d8a6e7998183.html
- Las Vegas, Nevada: http://news3lv.com/news/local/locals-gather-in-downtown-las-vegas-for-march-for-our-lives-rally
- Reno, Nevada: https://www.rgj.com/story/news/2018/03/24/thousands-swarm-reno-march-our-lives-rally-call-gun-control-safer-schools/456530002/
- Nashua, New Hampshire: http://www.nashuatelegraph.com/news/2018/03/25/march-for-our-lives-takes-over-main-street/
- Freehold, New Jersey: https://www.jerseyshoreonline.com/monmouth-county/freehold-march-for-our-lives-seeks-change-in-gun-laws/
- Montclair, New Jersey: https://www.tapinto.net/towns/montclaisections/law-and-justice/articles/hundreds-attend-march-for-our-lives-in-montclair
- Morristown, New Jersey: http://www.newjerseyhills.com/chatham_courienews/march-for-our-lives-draws-to-morristown/article_18321026-ed36-5338-a8d8-cfa8bb089911.html
- Newark, New Jersey: https://www.tapinto.net/towns/nutley/articles/thousands-rally-in-newark-as-part-of-the-nationwi-1
- Newton, New Jersey: http://www.njherald.com/20180325/teens-plead-for-gun-reform-at-newton-rally#//
- Ocean City, New Jersey: http://www.snjtoday.com/story/37810192/march-for-our-lives-in-ocean-city-1000-strong
- Princeton, New Jersey: http://www.centraljersey.com/news/princeton-march-for-our-lives-rally-draws-big-crowd-with/article_7f94b362-3115-11e8-90dd-fbc48c5b952c.html
- Red Bank, New Jersey: https://www.app.com/story/news/education/2018/03/24/march-our-lives-2018-march-24-gun-control-never-again-asbury-park-red-bank/441759002/
- Albuquerque, New Mexico: http://www.kob.com/albuquerque-news/thousands-participate-in-local-march-for-our-lives-event/4839029/
- Santa Fe, New Mexico: http://www.santafenewmexican.com/news/local_news/march-against-gun-violence-draws-thousands-to-downtown-santa-fe/article_a68d9d46-2f92-11e8-a556-a3d1286ea51e.html
- Albany, New York: http://wnyt.com/news/students-organize-albany-march-for-our-livesquot-event/4838651/
- Binghamton, New York: http://www.wbng.com/story/37802019/hundreds-participate-in-march-for-our-lives-in-binghamton
- Buffalo, New York: http://buffalonews.com/2018/03/24/march-for-our-lives-rally-draws-3000-in-buffalo-and-two-students-from-parkland/
- Cobleskill, New York: https://dailygazette.com/article/2018/03/24/crowds-in-albany-cobleskill-rally-for-gun-contol
- Ithaca, New York: https://theithacan.org/news/ithaca-community-rallies-at-march-for-our-lives/
- Oneonta, New York: http://cnynews.com/hundreds-attend-oneonta-march-for-our-lives-rally/
- Rochester, New York: https://www.democratandchronicle.com/story/news/2018/03/24/march-our-lives-rochester-rally-expected-draws-thousands/451142002/
- New York City, New York: https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2018/03/24/nyc-march-our-lives-gun-control/456089002/
- Rockland County, New York: http://www.rocklandtimes.com/2018/03/29/march-for-our-lives-protest-turned-out-a-large-crown-in-new-city/
- White Plains, New York: https://www.lohud.com/videos/news/local/westcheste2018/03/24/video-thousands-take-part-march-our-lives-rally-white-plains/33256183/
- Asheville, North Carolina: https://www.citizen-times.com/story/news/2018/03/24/live-asheville-march-our-lives-brings-out-hundreds-pack-square/455573002/
- Charlotte, North Carolina: http://wfae.org/post/young-old-show-en-masse-charlotte-march-our-lives-event#stream/0
- Bismarck, North Dakota: http://www.kfyrtv.com/content/news/Bismarck-March-for-Our-Lives-477834463.html
- Fargo, North Dakota: http://www.kvrr.com/2018/03/25/hundreds-advocate-for-gun-reform-at-march-for-our-lives/
- Minot, North Dakota: http://www.kfyrtv.com/content/news/Minot-March-for-our-Lives-sparks-gun-law-discussion-477828713.html
- Cincinnati, Ohio: http://www.wlwt.com/article/thousands-participate-in-student-led-march-for-our-lives-in-cincinnati/19583830
- Cleveland, Ohio: http://www.cleveland.com/metro/index.ssf/2018/03/students_lead_thousands_in_mar_1.html
- Columbus, Ohio: http://nbc4i.com/2018/03/24/thousands-expected-at-columbus-march-for-our-lives/
- Oklahoma City, Oklahoma: http://www.koco.com/article/hundreds-protest-gun-violence-during-march-for-our-lives-rally-in-okc/19584760
- Bend, Oregon: http://www.ktvz.com/news/thousands-join-bend-march-for-our-lives-rally/720741311
- Coos Bay, Oregon: http://theworldlink.com/news/local/coos-bay-march-for-our-lives-draws-hundreds/article_86ca30fa-8bc4-5094-be69-64ab20a44550.html
- Corvallis, Oregon: http://www.gazettetimes.com/news/local/thousands-join-march-for-our-lives-corvallis/article_a4e828b6-65c2-5605-aee8-4050d121b176.html
- Eugene, Oregon: http://registerguard.com/rg/news/local/36580686-75/thousands-rally-in-downtown-eugene-to-protest-gun-violence.html.csp
- Florence, Oregon: https://thesiuslawnews.com/article/we-have-to-start-somewhere-and-we-need-to-start-now
- Portland, Oregon: http://www.oregonlive.com/portland/index.ssf/2018/03/march_for_our_lives_portland_12000_show_up_for_gun_control.html
- Salem, Oregon: https://www.statesmanjournal.com/story/news/2018/03/24/march-our-lives-salem-oregon-students-lead-protest-demand-gun-control-legislation/455617002/
- Tillamook, Oregon: https://www.tillamookcountypioneer.net/tillamook-march-for-our-lives-saturday-march-24/
- Allentown, Pennsylvania: http://www.wfmz.com/news/lehigh-valley/large-crowd-rallies-in-allentown-for-march-for-our-lives-event/720703949
- Bloomsburg, Pennsylvania: http://fox56.com/news/local/dozens-attend-march-for-our-lives-sister-rally-in-bloomsburg
- Doylestown, Pennsylvania: http://www.theintell.com/news/20180324/march-for-our-lives-doylestown-draw-thousands
- Easton, Pennsylvania: http://www.theintell.com/news/20180324/march-for-our-lives-doylestown-draw-thousands
- Erie, Pennsylvania: http://www.goerie.com/news/20180324/hundreds-march-for-our-lives-in-erie
- Lancaster, Pennsylvania: http://lancasteronline.com/news/local/several-thousand-rally-against-gun-violence-in-march-for-ouarticle_74a77f70-2f76-11e8-95b0-7fab811b7799.html
- Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: http://www.pennlive.com/news/2018/03/march_for_our_lives_in_philade.html
- Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: http://pittsburgh.cbslocal.com/2018/03/24/pittsburgh-march-for-our-lives-gun-control-rally/
- Reading, Pennsylvania: http://www.readingeagle.com/news/article/enough-is-enough-echoes-from-city-park-to-reading-high-school
- State College, Pennsylvania: http://radio.wpsu.org/post/students-lead-way-march-our-lives-state-college
- Scranton, Pennsylvania: http://wnep.com/2018/03/24/students-march-for-our-lives-in-scranton/
- West Chester, Pennsylvania: https://www.wcuquad.com/6010122/news/the-march-for-our-lives-west-chester-students-join-the-movement/
- San Juan, Puerto Rico: http://sanjuanislander.com/photos/event-photos/slideshow-march-for-life-in-friday-harbor-march-24-2018
- Providence, Rhode Island: http://ripr.org/post/thousands-attend-march-our-lives-demonstration-providence#stream/0
- Charleston, South Carolina: https://www.postandcourier.com/news/thousands-attend-march-for-our-lives-rallies-in-charleston-and/article_89a7b3bc-2eb9-11e8-829c-cb7447f515ab.html
- Rapid City, South Dakota: http://listen.sdpb.org/post/rapid-city-joins-march-our-lives-protest
- Sioux Falls: http://www.ksfy.com/content/news/Hundreds-attend-March-for-Our-Lives-in-Sioux-Falls-477842963.html
- Vermillon, South Dakota: https://www.yankton.net/community/article_aa984776-30a3-11e8-8aa5-0b3b2a38f11c.html
- Memphis, Tennessee: http://www.wmcactionnews5.com/story/37801221/thousands-turn-out-for-mid-south-march-for-our-lives-protests
- Nashville, Tennessee: https://www.tennessean.com/story/news/2018/03/24/march-our-lives-nashville-live-updates/389318002/
- Austin, Texas: https://patch.com/texas/downtownaustin/austin-mayor-among-participants-march-our-lives-rally
- Corpus Christi, Texas: http://www.kiiitv.com/article/news/local/hundreds-march-for-our-lives-in-downtown-corpus-christi/503-531883145
- Houston, Texas: https://www.click2houston.com/news/march-for-our-lives-these-are-the-events-planned-across-the-houston-area
- Waco, Texas: http://www.wacotrib.com/news/politics/students-bring-passionate-speeches-to-march-for-our-lives-rally/article_b33e5795-195f-5307-a4ae-e046e8e1deb5.html
- Salt Lake City, Utah: http://www.charlotteobserver.com/news/politics-government/national-politics/article206705899.html
- St. Croix, US Virgin Islands: http://www.virginislandsdailynews.com/news/march-for-our-lives/image_8238904e-e22b-55c3-a87e-bbd5196a7693.html
- Montpelier, Vermont: https://www.burlingtonfreepress.com/story/news/politics/2018/03/22/march-our-lives-expected-draw-large-crowds-vermont-capital-montpelie438342002/
State of the Week 37: Nebraska
submitted by cardinals5 to AskAnAmerican [link] [comments]
Overview Name and Origin
: "Nebraska"; meaning "flat water" in several Native American languages. Flag
: Flag of the State of Nebraska Map
: Nebraska County Map Nickname(s)
: The Cornhusker State Demonym(s)
: Nebraskan Abbreviation
: NE Motto
: "Equality before the law" Prior to Statehood
: Nebraska Territory Admission to the Union
: March 1, 1867 (37th) Population
: 1,896,190 (37th) Population Density
: 24.0/sq mi (43rd) Electoral College Votes
: 5 Area
: 77,358 sq mi (16th) Sovereign States Similar in Size
: Senegal (75,955 sq mi), Kyrgyzstan (77,202 sq mi), Belarus (80,200 sq mi) State Capital
: Lincoln Largest Cities (by population in latest census) Borders
: South Dakota [N], Iowa [E], Missouri [SE], Kansas [S], Colorado [SW], Wyoming [W] Subreddit
Government Governor: Pete Ricketts (R)
Lieutenant Governor: Mike Foley (R)
U.S. Senators: Deb Fischer (R), Ben Sasse (R)
U.S. House Delegation: 3 Representatives | 2 Republican, 1 Democrat
Nebraska is unique among the states, being the only one with both a unicameral (one body) and legally nonpartisan. Party affiliations listed are only for informational purposes.
Seats: 49 | 35 Republican, 12 Democrat, 1 Libertarian, 1 Independent
Speaker of the Legislature: Galen Hadley (R)
Presidential Election Results (since 1980, most recent first)
Demographics Racial Composition:
- 87.3% non-Hispanic White
- 5.5% Hispanic/Latino (of any race)
- 4% Black
- 1.3% Asian
- 1.4% Mixed race, multicultural or biracial
- 0.9% Native American, Native Alaskan, Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
Second Languages – Most Non-English Languages Spoken at Home
- German (38.6%)
- Irish (13.4%)
- English (9.6%)
- Swedish (4.9%)
- Czech (4.9%)
- Spanish or Spanish Creole (4.9%)
- German (0.6%)
- Vietnamese (0.4%)
- Czech (0.3%)
- French or French Creole (0.2%)
- Christian (75%)
- Evangelical Protestant (25%)
- Mainline Protestant (24%)
- Catholic (23%)
- Historically Black Protestant (2%)
- Mormon (1%)
- Unaffiliated, Atheist or Refused to Answer (20%)
- Jewish, Buddhist, Islamic, Hindu, or Other (4%) _______
Education Colleges and Universities in Nebraska include these five largest four-year schools:
Economy State Minimum Wage: $9.00/hour
Minimum Tipped Wage: $2.13/hour
Unemployment Rate: 2.5%
Sports Nebraska does not have any major professional sports franchises in any of the Big Five sports, but does have several minor league and independent teams.
Nebraska has two prominent NCAA Division I programs: The University of Nebraska (Lincoln) Cornhuskers and the University of Nebraska (Omaha) Mavericks. The state is also the home for the NCAA Collegiate Baseball World Series, which it has hosted since 1950.
List of Famous People
- Nebraska has the U.S.'s largest aquifer (underground lake/water supply), the Ogalala aquifer.
- Nebraska is the only state in the union with a unicameral (one house) legislature.
- The cost of the Nebraska Capitol building was $ 9,800,440.07 in 1932. The construction job came in under budget and the building was paid for by the time it was completed.
- Kearney, Nebraska is located exactly between Boston and San Francisco.
- he state nickname used to be the "Tree Planter's State", but was changed in 1945 to the "Cornhusker State".
As always, thanks to deadpoetic31 for compiling the majority of the information here, and any suggestions are greatly appreciated!
- New Jersey
- South Carolina
- New Hampshire
- New York
- North Carolina
- Rhode Island
- West Virginia
The Intrigues of the Fascist Papist William Randolph Hearst
William Randolph Hearst Sr. submitted by Ainsoph777 to Jesuitworldorder [link] [comments]
April 29, 1863 – August 14, 1951) was an American businessman, politician, and newspaper publisher who built the nation's largest newspaper chain and media company Hearst Communications
and whose flamboyant methods of yellow journalism
influenced the nation's popular media by emphasizing sensationalism and human interest stories. He later expanded to magazines, creating the largest newspaper and magazine business in the world. He was twice elected as a Democrat
to the U.S. House of Representatives
, and ran unsuccessfully for President of the United States
, Mayor of New York City
in 1905 and 1909 and for Governor of New York in 1906
. He sensationalized Spanish atrocities in Cuba and called for war in 1898 against Spain
" Expansion meant military expansion, and rumblings of war clouds could be heard in the distance. Senator Nelson Aldrich, a Rockefeller relative, demanded a “bitter conquest” for “industrial supremacy” in the world. The yellow press of Hearst
and Pulitzer began to call war “good for business,”
as William McKinley stated, “We want our own markets for our surplus products.”19 “American factories are making more than the American people can use,” exclaimed Senator Albert Beveridge in 1897. “American soil is producing more than they can consume. Fate has written our policy for us; the trade of the world shall and must be ours.”20 By that year, military targets had become more specific. “We have a record of conquest, colonization, and expansion unequaled by any people in the nineteenth century. We are not to be curbed now,” boasted Senator Henry Cabot Lodge. “For the sake of our commercial supremacy in the Pacific we should control the Hawaiian Islands and maintain an influence in Samoa.”21 - Dupont Dynasty, Gerard Colby (source : http://www.dupontasbestosdocuments.com/Du%20Pont%20Dynasty%20%20Behind%20the%20Nylon%20Curtain%20%28Forbidden%20Bookshelf%29_nodrm.pdf
Hearst was a Fascist! : "Mussolini is a great executive, a true leader of men, and the great works he has accomplished are his genuine fortifications to a high place in history and in the hearts of his people."- Millicent Hearst
, the wife of William Randolph Hearst
, after a visit to Rome where she met Mussolini in the early 1930s.
William Randolph Hearst was really the first American Media Mogul.
"By the mid-1920s he had a nationwide string of 28 newspapers, among them the Los Angeles Examiner
, the Boston American
, the Atlanta Georgian
, the Chicago Examiner
, the Detroit Times
, the Seattle Post-Intelligencer
, the Washington Times
, the Washington Herald
, and his flagship, the San Francisco Examiner
. Hearst also diversified his publishing interests into book publishing and magazines; several of the latter are still in circulation, including such periodicals as Cosmopolitan
), Good Housekeeping
, Town and Country
), and Harper's Bazaar
." The phrase "America First" that Donald Trump the current President of the United States(educated at Jesuit Fordham) likes to use originates with William Randolph Hearst. " During the early 1930s, as the Nazis consolidated control over Germany, the U.S. media baron William Randolph Hearst began touting
the slogan “America First” against President Franklin Roosevelt, whom he saw as dangerously likely to “allow the international bankers and the other big influences that have gambled with your prosperity to gamble with your politics.” Hearst regarded Roosevelt’s New Deal as “un-American to the core” and “more communistic than the communists” — unlike Nazism, which he believed had won a great victory for “liberty-loving people” everywhere in defeating Communism. " (source: https://www.washingtonpost.com/posteverything/wp/2017/01/20/president-trumps-america-first-slogan-was-popularized-by-nazi-sympathizers/?utm_term=.27cb220e1524
William Randolph Hearst was affiliated with the American Liberty League, a fascist corporatism organization which attempted to install a fascist dictatorship in the United States during the Presidency of FDR.
Quoting from, Dark Crusade: Christian Zionism and US Foreign Policy, by Clifford Attick Kiracofe "The League's key members included William Knudson of General Motors, oil baron J.Howard Pew; Nathan. L Miller, counsel of US Steel; Irene DuPont, Pierre DuPont, and Lammot DuPont; John J Raskob of DuPont and General Motors(who was a former chairman of the Democratic National Committee) ; and the Hearst Interests. Even former Governer Al Smith of New York, the Democratic presidential candidate of 1928, was allied with the League. William Randolph Hearst's involvement with the Liberty League brought it many important allegiances. The Hearst interests were linked with the financial interests of West Coast financier A.P. Giannini's TransAmerica company and Bank of America. This bank reportedly handled Mussolini's financial interests in the USA. The Hearst interests controlled an important share of the Remington Arms Corperation, of which DuPont Interests had the controlling share. Remington small arms were reportedly to have been made avaiable to 500,000 paramilitary forces operating in the service of the Buisness Plot, which planned to seize Washington DC, the nations capital by force." The DuPonts like Hearst were admirers of Fascism "The rising Axis powers also proved to be good business prospects. Mussolini’s well-ordered Italy looked so attractive to the Du Ponts that they invested over a million dollars in its chemical industry, buying 70 percent of Societa Italiana della Celluloide and 90 percent of Societa Amonima Mazzucchelli-(Colby)
From the above names affiliated with the Liberty League, John J Raskob was a Knight of Malta, and a Knight of St.Gregory, and Al Smith was a Knight of Columbus and a Papal Chamberlain. (who threw out the first pitch at Yankee Stadium which the Knights own...) These 2 Catholic fascists were behind the development of the Empire State Building . Nathan L Miller was the chief counsel for US Steel, which was headed up by Myron Charles Taylor who became FDR's and Truman's personal Representative to Pius XII. Nathan L Miller was also a devout Catholic and the governor of New York. Myron Taylor aswell was a Knight of Malta...William Knudsen described Hitler’s Germany to a reporter as “the miracle of the twentieth century." Knudsen was the chairman of the War Production board. The DuPonts were very involved in the American Liberty League like Hearst, and the lawyer for the DuPonts during 1934 Senate Committee Munitions hearing was none other than Wild Bill Donovan the head of the OSS, and is known as the "founding father of the CIA". Donovan, a devout Catholic, was knighted as a Knight of the Order of Saint Sylvester in 1944 . William Donovan was also involved in the creation of the fascist American Legion fraternity (which has a roman wreath right on its emblem)... and the American Legion like the American Liberty League was involved in the 1934 Business Plot. The American Legion connection to William Randolph Hearst is through Frank N Belgrano Jr , one of the Legions first commanders. Belgrano Jr worked for the United Bank & Trust Co.(UBT), and he was the first banker to serve as its President in 1934. United Bank& Trust merged with A.P Giannini's Bank of America, and after the merger Belgrano Jr. became a Vice President staying in that post until 1940. Belgrano Jr was very close with A.P Giannini. Giannini like William Randolph Hearst and Myron Charles Taylor was an admirer of Mussolini and fascism! In Giannini's case he was a personal friend of Mussolini. Mussolini had a Jesuit confessor named Pietro Tachi Venturi SJ. Giannini was also a member of the Knights of Malta just like Mussolini!! " The Vatican awards Knighthood in the Order of Malta to two San Franciscans, Transamerica Corporation President Amadeo Peter Giannini
and American Trust Company President John S. Drum. The knighthood is the oldest and most distinguished decoration of laymen conferred by the Catholic Church. " (source :https://endrtimes.blogspot.com/2008/09/amadeo-peter-giannini-founder-of-bank.html
Quoting from an article titled Frank N Belgrano, Jr. by Richard Sanders : " Giannini’s banking empire rivaled that of Rockefeller
. Giannini, a friend and admirer of Mussolini, handled some of the dictator’s business accounts, though Morgan was his main foreign banker, supplying a $100 million loan in 1926. Giannini was the prime funder of one America’s biggest Italian newspapers, L’Italia
. It promoted the idea that America would do well to adopt the new fascist model of government. Giannini created New York City’s East National Bank (1919) and a parent company, Transamerica Corp., for his Bank of America in New York (1928). Its CEO was Elisha Walker, a partner of the Kuhn, Loeb Co., whose top banker was Otto Kahn. In 1924, a year into Mussolini’s rule, Kahn spoke to Toronto’s Empire Club: "To anyone who knew Italy...18 months ago, with its constant strikes, class animosities, political confusion and social tremors, the change... is almost unbelievable…. Credit belongs to a great man, beloved and revered in his own country... much misunderstood abroad, a self-made man…, setting out with nothing but the genius of his brain, the force of his character and the ardour of patriotism, Benito Mussolini.... a natural born and genuinely great leader, a tremendous and most impressive personality."In 1928, Elisha Walker was also a director of the American International Corp. Created in 1915 by J.P. Morgan
, the Rockefellers and National City Bank, its directors included Pierre du Pont, Otto Kahn, George Herbert Walker (great grandfather of President George W. Bush)
, William Woodward
(director, Federal Reserve Bank, NY) and Percy Rockefeller. In 1930, after the Crash, Giannini skipped off to Italy to be near his friend Mussolini. For this temporary “retirement,” Giannini withdrew $2.4 million from his Bank of Italy. It became Bank of America, which by 1949 was the nation’s wealthiest bank. John Spivak
says Belgrano had close ties with media tycoon, William R. Hearst
. Belgrano later served as vice president of Occidental Life Insurance of California, and president of Pacific National Fire Insurance (1940-1943); Oakland’s Central Bank (1943-1947); and First National Bank (1947). Giannini died in 1953 and Belgrano took over TransAmerica. A year later, he took 22 banks from Giannini’s empire and set up First Western Bank. A 1956 law forced him to create a new bank-holding company, Firstamerica Corp., while Transamerica focused on insurance and real estate interests." (source : http://coat.ncf.ca/our_magazine/links/53/belgrano.html
George Herbert Walker who is mentioned above was educated at Jesuit Stoneyhurst College in England! Here is a photo of Frank N Belgrano Jr : https://www.loc.gov/item/98519487/
, and there is now a Frank N Belgrano Jr Trophy given out by the Boy Scouts.... " The Frank N. Belgrano, Jr. Trophy is to be awarded annually to the department that has rendered the most outstanding service during the period Aug. 1 – Aug. 1 to the program of the Boy Scouts of America. " http://blog.coloradolegion.org/observer-news-updates/national-commander-names-judges-to-select-frank-n-belgrano-jr-trophy-recipient-at-2011-national-convention
. And the current President of the Boy Scouts of America is none other than Jesuit educated at Georgetown Robert Gates!! Gates was recently the Secretary of Defense and is a former Director of Central Intelligence.... " On October 30, 2013, the Boy Scouts of America
announced that Gates had been elected to the National executive board. "..." Since leaving the Obama Administration, Gates has been elected President of the Boy Scouts of America
, served as Chancellor
of the College of William & Mary
, and served as a member on several corporate boards. "
Avro Manhattan in his book Vatican Billions says " Even more telling is that fact that they (The Jesuits) furnished A.P. Giannini, an Italian Promoter, with half of the starting capital for Bank of America. Today the Jesuits still own 51 percent of the Stock. "
Quoting from Douglas Waller;s biography on William Donovan : " The national commander of the American Legion, which Donovan helped found, told Ike the OSS chief was now the man with the “knowledge,experience and passion” to wage a subversive war against the Soviets. "...." He(Donovan) joined several dozenother officers in Paris to organize the American Legion, which would lobby for veterans’ benefits and advocate a strong national defense. "
Very Tellingly the American Legion made Ferdinand Jean Marie Foch,
an Honorary National Commander! Foch who was a French general
and military theorist served as the Supreme Allied Commander
during the First World War
. "Foch attended school at Tarbes, Rodez
and the Jesuit
College at Saint-Étienne
. His brother became a Jesuit priest "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Legion
The American Legion was also very close to William Randolph Hearst, they gave Hearst a award in 1946:https://www.legion.org/distinguishedservicemedal/1946/william-randolph-hearst
" A strong proponent of The American Legion, Hearst received one of five Distinguished Service Medals in 1946. The National Executive Committee unanimously resolved that Hearst "has been a constant champion of the rights of veterans for the past 26 years, and has demonstrated an intense patriotism in his unselfish support of the program and principles of The American Legion." "
" The Legion's Americanism activities continued through the 1930s to the 1950s. It promoted the passage of state bills requiring loyalty oaths
of school teachers, and supported the activities of anti-Communist newspaper publishers, including William Randolph Hearst
, in identifying Communist sympathizers in academic institutions.
It was also influential in the creation of state-level legislative investigations into communist or un-American activities,
and staged a mock Communist takeover of Mosinee, Wisconsin
that garnered national headlines."
" The bogy of Socialism having yielded such striking success, the American corporations made it into their most remunerative asset, and soon “ disarmament ” for America began to mean a most sinister plot from Moscow, planning to plant the Red Flag in Washington. This served not only the Navy and steel industries, it was a God-sent gift to the manufacturers of poison gas. A significant disclosure at this period was that concerning John Thomas Taylor, “ legislative agent ” of the American Legion in Washington, acting as treasurer of an organization of chemical manufacturers. The American chemical manufacturers became worried lest the world should forget that there were gas manufacturers who must make reasonable profits. Taylor was charged by them to lead a publicity campaign against the treaty to abolish poison gas in war. "....." The U.S.A. had not yet produced either a Mussolini or a Hitler; that was true. But it had already produced several powerful anti-democratic, semi-Fascist, and, indeed, Fascist organizations. The “ American Legion,” for instance. The Commander of the American Legion, Alvin Owsley, had sided with Fascism from the very beginning. “ The Fascisti are to Italy what the American Legion is to the United States,” he publicly declared in 1922, the very year that Mussolini went into power. More than this, he repeatedly said that he was prepared to seize Washington in the Mussolini way.5 "...."Some American Legion conventions invited Mussolini to participate, sent him medals, and, indeed, considered him their ideal ideological leader. "....." George Craig, of the American Legion, publicly declared that the U.S.A. should start World War III “ on our own terms,” lyrically indulging in the “ ifs ” and “ buts ” and “ whens " of at what time the signal could be given "for our bombers to wing towards Moscow"(August 16,1950). The American Legion- which had distinguished itself by its unbounded admiration of Hitler and Mussolini; indeed, which in 1935, the "big year" of Fascist aggression in Abyssinia, had pinned a Medal on Mussolini's chestand in 1951 had pinned another one on Catholic Franco".- Avro Manhattan, The Dollar and the Vatican
What is very intriguing is William Randolph Hearst's connections to the Vatican and the Nazi's..
Quoting from The Chief The Life of William Randolph Hearst , By David Nasaw, Chapter 1 : https://archive.nytimes.com/www.nytimes.com/books/first/n/nasaw-chief.html
: " For the next eighteen months, mother and son visited every important museum, gallery, palace, and church in Ireland, Scotland, England, France, Italy, Switzerland, Holland, Belgium, Austria, and Germany, most of them more than once; they perfected their French and Willie learned German; they met the pope in Rome
and had dinner with the American consul; they read Shakespeare in the evening and travel books all day long; and together they acquired an education in European art, culture, and history." Mussolini had two banquets in honor of William Randolph Hearst in 1930 and 1931!! (source : Imperial San Francisco: Urban Power, Earthly Ruin, With a New Preface, By Gray Brechin )
Avro Manhattan, The Dollar and the Vatican : " For instance, he(Theodore Roosevelt) personally trained his Rough-riders, yearning for expansionistic adventures, supported by William Randolph Hearst, one of the first small-brained drummer-boys of the great American industrial dinosaurs perpetually rumming all-out support for an even grander American expansion. Roosevelt, like Hearst and company, wanted to drive out all European nations from the American Continent. To give Americas to the Americans? Not at all. To give the Americas to the big North American corporations "
Interestingly, Theodore Roosevelt sent Skull and Bonesman William Howard Taft, at the time the Secretary of War and the 1st Provisional Governor of Cuba as an unofficial diplomat to Rome to negotiate with Pope Leo XIII. Aswell Roman Catholic Charles Joseph Bonaparte(a descendant of Napoleon Bonaparte) who went on to found the Bureau of Investigation now the Federal Bureau of Investigation (who's logo has a roman wreath on it...) served in Roosevelt's administration as the Secretary of the Navy, and the United States Attorney General .
Continuing from the Dollar and the Vatican : " The great American dinosaurs knew already how to help potential Fascist movements, potential storm-troops, and potential dictators. They had already put forward their case to the American people in their own Press. Had not William Randolph Hearst, for instance, in the 1930s, published signed propaganda articles by Goebbels, Goering, Hitler, and Mussolini? Had they not already granted them loans? Indeed, had they not gone farther? Had they not already sold arms to the European Fascist dictators to give teeth to their regimes and to make sure they were not overthrown? The Du Fonts, for instance, co-operated with Catholic Fritz Thyssen, of the German steel trust, when Thyssen led the German cartels and Big Business to pour out millions to the Nazis and thus put them into power before 1933. "......." For instance, the National Security League, the direct ancestor of the American Liberty League, which received large sums from the drummer-boy Hearst to propagate Fascism, particularly during the Spanish Civil War. Many of its members were Fascists, two of them openly so."....." When seen with such powerful media at its disposal, the phenomenal expansion of Catholic power is no longer a mystery. It becomes the logical result of a formidable alliance whose precise purpose in fostering it is to obtain certain definite objectives. The alliance, characterized prior to the Second World War by the extreme Isolationism of 1939-41, has been a pact of mutual assistance ever since. Prior to and even during the War this took the form of the most blatantly pro-Nazi propaganda. Incredible as it may seem, certain American magnates did not hesitate to co-operate in this task with Nazi Germany herself. Mr. O. John Rogge, former Assistant U.S. Attorney-General, in one of his reports to the Department of Justice, after disclosing that Hitler’s headquarters had made plans for planting interviews in the American Press for the purpose of influencing the American people, gives details about the planting of one such article in the Hearst papers.13 "....."Catholic penetration has reached such a stage that Catholic Press termites have climbed to the very top of certain Press empires thus using freely the immense news-distributing, opinion making, public-mind-molding machineries to further mostly obliquely, the influence of their Church-e.g., the Hearst Press Empire. W.R Hearst himself, a non-Catholic at one time was created a Papal count, “ for services rendered to the Catholic Church.” 16 ...."At Hearst’s death (1951) this empire fell directly into the lap of a Catholic directorate, led by a zealot, Mr. R. E Berlin, an active Catholic, a Knight of Malta, an intimate friend of Cardinal Spellman, and one of the most powerful and subtle propagandists for Catholicism in the U.S.A "
The controller of the Hearst media empire after W.R Hearst died, was a Knight Of Malta Richard E. Berlin.
Interestingly when the Hearst Empire was in some financial troubles they went to Knight of Malta A.P Giannini... the devout fascist and personal friend of Mussolini whom the Jesuits had invested in (sourced in the Vatican Billions, Avro Manhattan) and Giannini was a personal friend of American Legion knight Frank N Belgrano, Jr who worked for him. "Simultaneously Berlin negotiated a bank loan from A.P Giannini, president of Bank of America, that brought a financial stability to the organization that was made even stronger with the onset of the Second World War"- Hearst Over Hollywood: Power, Passion, and Propaganda in the Movies By Louis Pizzitola
Here is some info from the New York Times on Berlin : https://www.nytimes.com/1986/01/29/obituaries/richard-e-berlin-ex-leader-of-the-hearst-corporation-92.html
" Richard E. Berlin, who served as top manager of the Hearst Corporation for 32 years, died yesterday at his home in Rye, N.Y. He was 92 years old and had worked for Hearst for 54 years. When he took charge in the 1940's, his task was to rescue a foundering company from ruin. Under his guidance, the corporation not only recovered but grew into one of the country's biggest diversified media empires. When he retired in 1973, the conglomerate included eight newspapers; 11 magazines; four radio stations; three television stations; King Features Syndicate; Avon Books; the National Magazine Company Ltd., a British publishing house, and real-estate and mine holdings. Mr. Berlin was born in Omaha. After graduating from high school, he worked as a commodity trader, modeling himself after his father, Richard Emmett Berlin, a stockbroker..... "He served in the Navy during World War I. Discharged as a lieutenant in 1919, Mr. Berlin went to work for Hearst as an advertising trainee at its Motor Boating & Sailing magazine. Four years later, he was promoted to business manager of Smart Set and McClures, which he later merged into other Hearst properties.William Randolph Hearst, founder and owner of the family-run company, named Mr. Berlin executive vice president and general manager of Hearst Magazines, then including Cosmopolitan, Good Housekeeping, Harper's Bazaar and Town & Country. Advancing to the presidency of the magazine division, After Mr. Hearst's death in 1951, he also became chief executive officer, and he held both titles until his retirement. William Randolph Hearst Jr., current chairman and editor in chief of the Hearst newspapers, said Mr. Berlin's had been ''one of the most noteworthy careers in the history of American media.'' He added, ''His role as captain of the ship during a major reorganization of the company more than 40 years ago means simply that every member of this vast organization owes him a substantial debt of gratitude.'' A Roman Catholic, Mr. Berlin was a Knight of Malta and a volunteer worker for many charitable causes. He was on the executive board of Roosevelt Hospital and a director of Boys' Clubs of America. Mr. Berlin is survived by his wife, the former Muriel Johnson; four children, Brigid, Ritchie and Christina of New York and Richard E. Jr., of Boston, and three grandchildren."
Here is an intersting quote from the daughter of the Knight of Malta Richard E. Berlin :https://observer.com/2001/05/mommy-andy-and-me/
" “I would pick up the phone and it would be Richard Nixon. My parents entertained Lyndon Johnson, J. Edgar Hoover, and there were lots of Hollywood people because of San Simeon–Clark Gable, Joan Crawford, Dorothy Kilgallen.” European royalty also dined chez Berlin. “I have a box full of letters, written to my parents in the late 1940’s and 1950’s from the Duke and Duchess of Windsor.”"
Lyndon Johnson the 36th President of the United States was educated at Jesuit Georgetown Univeristy, and J. Edgar Hoover was the first director of the FBI and reigned for 50 years!!...He was given an honorary degree from Jesuit Georgetown University in 1939! " Georgetown U presents J. Edgar Hoover with honorary law degree. Washington, D.C., June 5. Upon the occasion of Georgetown University's celebration of the adoption of the constitution and founding of the University at a sesquicentennial convocation, J. Edgar Hoover, director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, was today presented with an honorary Doctor of Laws degree by the Rev. Arthur O'Leary, president of the university " (source : https://www.loc.gov/item/2016875750/
Papal Count William Randolph Hearst was the one who invited William Hitler, Adolf Hitler's nephew to tour the United States!! William Hitler would go to Join the American Navy in 1944! "William left Germany in January 1939 and visited the United States with his mother on a lecture tour
at the invitation of publisher William Randolph Hearst
. He and his mother were stranded in the U.S. when World War II
broke out. After making a special request to President Franklin D. Roosevelt
, William was eventually cleared to join the United States Navy in 1944, and moved to Sunnyside
in New York
). " https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Stuart-Houston
Hitler's nephew joining the American Navy is very significant when one remembers that Adolf Hitler viewed Heinrich Himmler as his Ignatius of Loyola! aswell the Nazi SS was modeled strictly off of the Jesuit order, and Hitler's book Mein Kampf was written for him by a Catholic Priest Bernard Stempfle! Hitler was also born into a Catholic family! And William Randolph Hearst personally met with Hitler in 1934! " All the while he flirted with fascism. From 1927 through the mid-thirties, Hearst solicited and ran regular columns from Benito Mussolini and then Adolf Hitler. After years of courtship, Hearst finally got to meet Hitler in 1934 in a carefully arranged rendezvous"(source : https://www.thenation.com/article/devil-and-mr-hearst/
Quoting from Edmund Paris, The Secret History of the Jesuits : " Another highly placed Hitlerian, Walter Schellenberg, former chief of the German counter-espionage, completed this confidence from the Fuhrer,after the war: "The S.S. organisation had been constituted, by Himmler, according to the principles of the Jesuit Order. Their regulations and the Spiritual Exercises prescribed by Ignatius of Loyola were the model Himmler tried to copy exactly... The "Reichsfuhrer SS"—Himmler's title as supreme chief of the SS—was to be the equivalent of the Jesuits' "General" and the whole structure of the direction was a close imitation of the Catholic Church's hierarchical order. A mediaeval castle, near Paderborn in Westphalia, and called "Webelsbourg", was restored; it became what could be called a SS monastery"......" The Fuhrer had come to power, thanks to the votes of the Catholic Zentrum, only five years before, but most of the objectives cynically revealed in 'Mein Kampf were already realised; this book, an insolent challenge to the western democracies, was written by the Jesuit FatherStaempfle and signed by Hitler."....." Hitler did not award the palm of Jesuitism to his chief of propaganda,though to the Gestapo's chief, as he told his favourites: "I can see Himmler as our Ignatius of Loyola" "
William Hitler, who William Randolph Hearst invited to come tour America worked for Opel, a German auto manufacturer owned by General Motors. A General Motors executive James D Mooney while acting as a personal secret envoy for FDR, was given a medal by Hitler, the Order of the German Eagle.
It was discovered recently that at the Hearst castle there were 3 paintings hanging up that were confiscated by the Nazi's at the Auschwitz concentration camp! (Source SFGate : https://www.sfgate.com/bayarea/article/3-Nazi-confiscated-works-found-at-Hearst-Castle-3245831.php
" Three 16th century oil paintings that have been hanging in William Randolph Hearst
's famous castle at San Simeon belonged to a Jewish couple who were forced to give them up during the Nazi reign in Germany, authorities said Tuesday. Two of the three paintings, visible to guests and millions of tourists at Hearst Castle since 1935, will be returned Friday to the heirs of the rightful owners, both of whom died during the war, one in the death camp at Auschwitz." (!!!)
" Hearst Castle
is a National Historic Landmark
and California Historical Landmark
mansion located on the Central Coast of California
, United States. Designed by architect Julia Morgan
it was a residence for newspaper magnate William Randolph Hearst
between 1919 and 1947. The Hollywood
elite often visited, usually flying into the estate's airfield or taking a private Hearst-owned train car
from Los Angeles. Among Hearst's guests were Charlie Chaplin
, Cary Grant
, the Marx Brothers
, Charles Lindbergh
, Greta Garbo
, Joan Crawford
, Clark Gable
, James Stewart
, Bob Hope
, Calvin Coolidge
, Franklin Roosevelt
, Dolores del Río
, and Winston Churchill
Fascist Catholic Priest Charles Coughlin was also very close to William Randolph Hearst. Ideologically these two men were very similar .
" Occasionally Coughlin will mention certain capitalists favorably in his radio broadcasts-Henry Ford(Awarded Order of the German Eagle, and a Catholic), Walter P. Chrysler, James Rand. Father Coughlin stayed at the San Simeon ranch of William Randolph Hearst while on a visit to California. Mr. G. A. Richards, president of WJR is a generous financial backer mentioned by Coughlin. He mentions too in one of his broadcasts (Father Charles E. Coughlin, an official biography, p.' 107.) the visit of Harris and LeBlanc to his shrine for intimate conversations, Rob· ert M. Harris of the New York Cotton Exchange-a southern bourbon well-known as a cotton and silver speculator, and George LeBlanc described by Coughlin as, "perhaps the world's foremost gold trader" (an international banker!). "...." Only one month before he(Coughlin) launched the National Union for Social Justice he said to Paul Weber of Hearst's International news Service (Detroit Times~ October 10, 1934) :" I am devoted to capitalism."" - Father Coughlin, Fascist Demagogue, by Joseph Hansen ( source : https://www.marxists.org/archive/hansen/1939/coughlin-fascist.pdf
" That Coughlin had the support of the Vatican itself was further proved when, in 1936, his own bishop, Bishop Gallagher, went to Rome to discuss Coughlin’s Fascist activi¬ ties. After having discussed it with Pius XI, Bishop Gallagher had no doubt that Coughlin’s political work was approved by the Pope himself. On his return, having been asked whether the Vatican was or was not critical of Coughlin’s Fascism, Bishop Gallagher gave an unmistakable reply. “ Father Coughlin,” he said, “ is an outstanding priest... his voice . . . is the voice of God.”......" “ Rest assured we will fight you, Franco’s way,” was his(Coughlin's) plan —that is to say, by the promotion of civil war.14 Coughlin went further. He was so certain that with the backing of his millions of Catholic and non-Catholic sympathizers, the money of Big Business, and the vast machinery of the Catholic hierarchy of America he would eventually succeed in doing what the plotters of 1934 had not been able to do, that he confidently predicted he would be in power within the next decade: —" We predict that ... the National Socialists of America, organized under that or some other name, eventually will take control of the Government on this continent. . . . We predict, lastly, the end of Democracy in America." [Father Coughlin, in Social Justice (September 1, 1939).] -Dollar and the Vatican, Avro Manhattan
source : https://archive.org/details/THEDOLLARANDTHEVATICANAVROMANHATTAN1957/page/n0
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